نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.
2 استادیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.
3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Visual Graphic in urban environment applies various features to facilitate communication, increase perception of the environment as well as create visual identity, improve the quality of visual mural, and enhance the richness of sensory visual attributes. Graffiti is a public art in urban environments, which is associated with a large group of audiences; therefore, analyzing the audience can help us to improve the quality and quantity of murals done in urban graffiti area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality and rating of graffiti performed in the urban environment by asking citizens and using priority indicators and impact assessment survey (analytic network process (ANP) to know the viewpoints of experts. According to ANP method, firstly the components and evaluation criteria for urban graffiti was extracted, using library resources and interviews with experts. After that, according to the characteristics of ANP data and basic information classification, the conceptual model of ANP was prepared. ANP model-based components and assessment indicators for Tehran urban graffiti, includes three sets (standard / group) and 20 options (index / subgroup) which were produced using Super Decisions software. Secondly, weighing indicators and evaluation criteria (1 to 9) were determined using the results of the questionnaires. The results of surveys and questionnaires, complemented by citizens and professionals, were analyzed by using the software. The output of the model reflected a variety of text and graphs for metrics and options in different ways. The aim of this study was to answer these questions:
1. Priority indicators and criteria of effective urban graffiti based on experts’ opinions
2. The priorities of Tehran graffiti based on the research works and in accordance with the viewpoints of citizens and audiences
To gain more results, we used the following assumptions to analyze the data and the model outputs: According to the two major metropolitan areas, it seems that citizens can view performed Stock graffiti in to: field (space pause) and ST (space travel) which are different referring to the visual perception of concepts or conceptual works. In the space pause, because of specifics and proportions used for influencing on pedestrians, color combinations, and theme frescoes attributed to the crowded spaces, the visual messages of graffiti will receive faster. Specific aspects of graffiti influence on the audiences such as: large-scale forms and general color combinations. Therefore, considering the location, shape and the proportions, scale, and placement of the mural to a comfortable view will increase the utility and benefits of graffiti. Murals with respect to architecture and the backgrounds were caused dynamics of space and environmental visual diversity that can
attract more audiences. Therefore, it is recommended to pay attention to the scale, size, color and texture effects, in terms of design, architecture and location of the various bodies and surfaces. Understanding the features of graffiti in urban environments requires correcting the perceptions how to design the shape and effect of the graffiti, interacting with three main elements: audience, environment and architecture of the space. The perceptions that designer shares with the receiver (the audience) is important while it can be seen as visible (apparent) and invisible (spiritual). In sharing visual language, it is important to consider audience’s experience and mindset, which gives the designer knowledge and recognition of aesthetic, social, and cultural environment to help society. The results indicate that the proper location, the structure of visual murals, color combinations, architecture and environment, appropriate theme, and content of the work gain more points than other indexes of Expert Group analysis.