بررسی نقش عوامل اجتماعی و کالبدی بر احساس امنیت شهروندان در شهر رشت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه گیلان، گیلان، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد برنام هریزی منطق های، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه گیلان، گیلان، ایران.

چکیده

امنیت شهری یکی از مهم ترین عوامل تأثیرگذار در کیفیت زندگی شهروندان محسوب می شود. حضور مردم در فضاهای عمومی شهری به میزان احساس امنیت آن ها از این فضاها بستگی دارد و فقدان امنیت یا ترس از بزه و یا مورد تعرض قرار گرفتن در برابر رفتارهای غیرمدنی و خشن موجب ترس و تحدید حضور افراد در عرصه های عمومی شهر می شود. این مقاله به بررسی نقش عوامل اجتماعی و کالبدی مؤثر بر احساس امنیت در شهر رشت می پردازد. با توجه به اینکه امنیت و علل ناامنی شاخص های مهم مرتبط با کیفیت زندگی ساکنان در مجتمع های زیستی محسوب می شوند، شناسایی عوامل مرتبط با امنیت شهری، طراحان و سیاستگذاران را در برنامه ریزی و اصلاح کیفیت زندگی شهروندان کمک می کند. روش کلی تحقیق به کار رفته در این مطالعه توصیفی- تحلیلی است و داده های مورد استفاده در آن از طریق بررسی میدانی و تکمیل پرسشنامه از ساکنان شش محله شهری در رشت به دست آمده است. برای تحلیل داده ها از آزمون های آماری ناپارامتری ویلکاکسون و واریانس یک طرفه آنووا جهت مقایسه احساس امنیت در بین محله ها استفاده شده است. همچنین برای شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر میزان امنیت شهری از تحلیل رگرسیون OLS بهره گرفته شده است. یافته های  مهم این تحقیق نشان می دهد که میزان احساس امنیت برای شهروندان بر حسب موقعیت زمانی شب و روز، جنسیت افراد و محله های مختلف شهر دارای تفاوت معنی داری است. همچنین نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون بیانگر آن است که از میان متغیرهای انتخاب شده، امن بودن محله برای کودکان، کیفیت معابر، میزان روشنایی و وجود ساختمان های فرسوده و متروکه مه مترین عوامل پیش بینی کننده میزان احساس امنیت شهروندان محسوب می شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Social and Physical Factors on Citizens’ Perception of Security in Rasht

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nooreddin Azimi 1
  • Najmeh Karami 2
  • Fatemeh Atabakhsh 2
1 Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Arts, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
2 M.A. of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Urban security has an important role in the healthy development of urbanization process. Lack of security disrupts the society wellbeing in daily life, impedes the cultural development and public participation and imposes high costs on society. Provision of security is an essential factor for strengthening communities and making them more confident and responsible for their own lives and wellbeing. Appropriate urban spaces greatly contribute to the security and reduce vulnerability and social problems. Due to differences in the quality of urban spaces, sense of security or insecurity is also different for residents. As a result, some neighbourhoods are felt safer than others. On the other hand, the physical quality of neighbourhoods is under the influences of social behaviors and hence characteristic of each neighbourhood is different from other neighbourhoods. Because of the importance of public spaces in the development of democratic society, the equal access to public realms reduces the social segregation and helps to achieve the establishment of civil society. Sense of security causes the presence of people in urban spaces while the lack of it or fear of crime or being attacked by uncivil behaviors, will limit their presence in urban public spaces. Encouraging citizen’s presence in public spaces and providing equal accessibility for all individual and groups are among the necessary measures that should be taken into consideration. Previous research shows three sets of variables that impact neighbourhood security including demographic characteristics, victimization experience and neighborhood conditions. Among the demographic variables, sex, age and socio-economic status have been identified as important factors that influence the crime and security. Previous studies also indicate a significant relationship between victimization and perceptions of risk in the neighborhood. Finally, variables such as deteriorating buildings, density, street quality, the lighting conditions and trash have been noted as environmental characteristics that affect neighbourhood security. This paper has focused on the role of social and physical factors impacting citizens’ perception of security in six neighborhoods of Rasht. The objectives include 1) to find out how is the perceived security within urban neighborhoods of Rasht? 2) Is there any significant difference between the security perceptions of different neighbourhoods? And, 3) what are the main predictors for perceived neighborhood security for urban residents? The used data in this study has exctracted from a field survey in 2014 conducted in six
neighborhoods of Rasht, Iran. Rasht is the capital of Guilan Province and the largest  population centre on the southern Caspian Sea coasts. Selected neighborhoods include 1)Golsar neighborhood, a planned district with mostly high income groups, 2) Farhangian neighborhood, a small and relatively high income groups, 3) Sagharsazan neighborhood, located in the old and central district with relatively medium to low income groups. 4) Rashtian neighborhood located in the west part containing medium to low income residents, 5) Dianati neighborhood situated in the east part with mostly lower income groups and 6) Hamidian neighborhood located in the west with majority of low income rural immigrants. The dependent variable assesses the extent to which residents agreed on the perceived security of their neighborhoods. Answers were organized in a fivelevel Likert scale of, completely agree, agree, neutral, disagree and completely disagree. The independent variables included time (day and night), demographic characteristics (gender, level of education, length of residence in the neighborhood, being close to relatives, sense of safety for children and presence of police) and physical conditions of the neighborhood (street lighting, quality of streets, congested passages, existence of deteriorated and or abandoned buildings). For the analysis, Non-parametric tests of Wilcoxon and one-way Annova tests were used to analyze the security perception among the neighborhoods. Also an OLS regression was employed to find out the main social and physical factors affecting neighborhood security. Our study indicated that the perception of neighborhood security is significantly different between the day and night times. While no difference was observed for neighborhood security perception between men and women for day time, it was significantly different for the night time. The study found a relationship between neighborhood security perception and the overall socioeconomic status of residents. It revealed that the residents of neighborhoods with higher socio-economic status felt safer than residents of neighborhoods with lower social status. Results of OLS regression showed that among the selected social and physical variables, safety perception for children, deteriorated and abandoned buildings, quality of roads, street lighting are the most important predicting factors of security perception within the different neighborhoods in Rasht.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Neighbourhood Security
  • Residents’ Perception
  • Social and Physical Characteristics
  • Rasht

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