تحلیل سطح و نوع اثرگذاری عوامل کالبدی بر کیفیت زندگی در بافتهای قدیمی شهر بجنورد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

3 عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در این پژوهش که با هدف تحلیل و تعیین نحوه اثرگذاری عوامل کالبدی بر سطح کیفیت محیط سکونت در بافت دارای قدمت شهرستان بجنورد انجام شده است، به بررسی روابط وابستگی و علّی شاخص های مؤثر در این دو حوزه پرداخته شده است. براساس یافته های نظری، شاخص های کالبدی عمده شامل (کاربری زمین، تراکم ساختمانی، کیفیت ابنیه، شبکه دسترسی) دسته بندی شده و رابطه وابستگی هر یک از آ نها بر روی شاخص های کیفی شامل (کیفیت دسترسی شبکه معابر، کیفیت ایمنی و معابر، کیفیت بافت دسترسی به خدمات، کیفیت سیمای محله، کیفیت ابنیه)، با استفاده از روش رگرسیون چند متغیره مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. در انتها ب همنظور شناخت نوع اثرگذاری هر یک از متغیرها و بازشناسی متغیرهای اثرگذار مستقیم و غیرمستقیم بر کیفیت محیط سکونت، چرخه های علّی و معلولی بر پایه تفکر پویایی- شناسی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته اند. نتایج نشان م یدهد که ساختار شبکه دسترسی و همچنین سطح تراکم ساختمانی، بیشترین سهم را در تبیین واریانس متغیر وابسته داشته اند. بالا بودن سطح یکپارچگی معابر محله هدف و پایین بودن ضریب برخورداری محله از خدمات اصلی نسبت به جمعیت خود، بیانگر این مطلب است که این محله از یک سو به دلیل ساختار فضایی یکپارچه ناشی از گره های ترافیکی مؤثر، نفوذپذیری بالایی داشته اما از سوی دیگر کاربری های موجود در آن قادر به جذب سفرهای صورت گرفته و ایجاد یک گره عملکردی نیستند. همچنین متغیرهای کیفیت ابنیه و تراکم ساختمانی در کنار دو متغیر شبکه دسترسی و تراکم ساختمانی به طور مستقیم و بدون واسطه بر روی سطح کیفیت سکونت در محله هدف اثرگذارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Analysis of Type and Level of Physical Factors’ Impacts on the Quality of Life in Bojnoord Urban Fabric

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Bandarabad 1
  • Aida Saberi 2
  • Sina Ataee 3
1 Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 M.A. Student in Urban Planning, Department of Urban Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Member of Young Researcher’s Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Quality of urban life is one of the most important areas of urban studies in different countries that have multiple components of social, environmental and economic. Because of its role, attention to this indicator in cities as an efficient tool for urban management and planning and generally livability of city is increased during recent decades. In cities
across the country, deteriorated areas including urban areas are development in physical and socio- economic prosperity of the rest of the city does not match and level of quality of life in them because of depreciation is drastically decreased. Overall, we can say that the concept of “urban life quality” or “quality of living environment” were considered to
promote the development and evolution of the concept of sustainable urban development and spend a little and economic development. Moreover, the issue of improving the quality of life and the urban environment was an emerging trend in the early 1960s, because the world was faced with problems of one-dimensional growth and development. Various variables in terms of type and level of effectiveness had been influenced on creating a physical gap in urban fabric. The physical variables as the most visible and obvious variables, in some cases have been both a cause and a consequence of structural changes in socio-economic and political factors. In this research, which aimed at analyzing and determining the impact of physical factors on the level of quality of life, we focused on Bojnoord ancient urban fabric, which is discussed in those two fields. During this study, library and field survey (in the form of questionnaires and interviews) are used for collecting data while statistical tools and suitable software are used to analyze the findings. Therefore, the selected criteria for assessing the quality of the Paye Toop neighborhood of Bojnourd, as an old and deteriorated city center, are based on theoretical findings. The results presented the target announced range and explained the selection of variables
influencing quality measurement. In order to determine the impact of physical factors on the quality of residential environment, according to literature and the factors, qualitative indicators are used. Paye Toop neighborhood is one of the oldest neighborhoods of Bojnurd which is the business core and the Bojnourd’s development main core. Urban fabric compression neighborhood consists of narrow streets and impermeable with the composition and compressed residential buildings. That’s why the urban open spaces cannot be seen in the neighborhood. The Construction Model of residential units has north - south orientation and the use of building materials such as adobe, plaster, clay, limestone and wooden beams along with the south axis oriented, use in opposition to cold weather conditions in this region in order to access more comfort. On the bases of the theoretical framework, five major land uses include: residential, commercial, educational, cultural, religious, and green space (including leisure and tourism) have been studied to measure the factors, neighborhood amenities and services. In the analysis of network access methods and mathematical space syntax is used as well. Based on theoretical findings, major physical parameters including (land use, structural density, quality construction, network access quality) are classified. Moreover, the dependency of their own qualitative indicators including (network access road quality, safety and passages quality, fabric quality access to services, the neighborhood face quality and buildings quality), were analyzed using the multivariate regression test. Finally, in order to identify type and impact of each variable and their directly and indirectly affects on the quality of the life environment, the cycles of cause and effect based on the dynamics of thinking were used. A high level of integration passages neighborhood of purpose and low coefficient of satisfaction in neighborhood of basic services to its population, indicate that this neighborhood suffers from the integrated spatial structure caused by traffic jams due to the lack of effective permeability. The results show that structure of the access network and building density level have had the largest score of explained variance in the dependent variable. Also, the quality of construction variables and structural density are effective beside these two variables relating to level of the quality of living in the target neighborhood directly and without intermediaries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Quality of Life Environment
  • Physical factors
  • System dynamics approach
  • Space Syntax

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