ریشه های گسست و گم گشتگی فرهنگی در معماری معاصر ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران

2 استاد معماری، دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

نکته محوری این مقاله، مبین آن است که تغییر رؤیاهای ایرانیان طی اعصار و دهه‌های مختلف، باعث مطالبه دنیایی دیگر گونه در مقایسه با دنیای موجودشان بوده است. این امر هر از چندگاهی، دگرگونی‌هایی را به ارمغان آورده است. شهر و معماری ایرانی از اوایل دهه چهل با دگرگونی و تحول مفهوم‌ها و معناها و به تعبیری، «تغییر رؤیاها» و همچنین با غلبه «کمیت» بر «کیفیت» مواجه می شود و هر آن چه کمّی و یا عددی باشد، میدان می‌یابد. رؤیاپردازی جامعه ایرانی برای تغییر وضع موجود در دوره‌های مختلف، رفته رفته با غفلت، به خوا‌ب‌زدگی منجر شده و این امر نهایتاً موجب گسست از جریان پیوسته معماری سنتی شده است. امروزه معماری به نحو ناهنجاری پیوند خود را با گذشته‌اش از دست داده و مناسبات جدیدی جای آن را گرفته و در حوزه نظر و عمل معماری، چالش‌ها و تردیدهای موجود در تعاملات فرهنگی، به گونه پیچیده‌تری، جنبه کالبدی و عینی به خود گرفته است. به عبارتی، نوعی گسستگی و گُمگشتگی فرهنگی در معماری رخ داده است. این مقاله در جست وجوی مباحث فرهنگی در وضع موجود معماری ایران، گسست‌های فرهنگی موجود در آن را مورد اشاره قرار داده و آن‌ها را ناشی از گسست‌های مشابه در فرهنگ و جامعه ایران برشمرده است. مرور تحولات چهره و لحن معماری ایران در دوره معاصر و پرداختن به اندیشه‌های گونه‌گون در حوزه معماری و فرهنگ، با نگاهی به وضعیت تحولات جهانی و عنایت به رابطه ایران و غرب، گویای این مهم است که آنچه معماری امروز ما را دستخوش بحران نموده است، وجه فرهنگی- اجتماعی آن می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Origins of Cultural Gaps and Perplexities in Contemporary Iranian Architecture

نویسندگان [English]

  • Manochehr Moazemi 1
  • Eesa Hojjat 2
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Art, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor of Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The central point of this paper is that changing the dreams of Iranians over the ages and decades has caused a different world in comparison to their existing world. This includes changes from time to time, which has led to crises changes and transformational crises; In turn, this has undermined the necessary social concentration in addressing “experiences from history” and “norms of society”; In such a situation, the transformation that is like life and growth for culture, does not fit into the proper context and goes away. In the contemporary Iranian architecture, we are witnessing such developments. Among the crisis changes that have occurred in many cities of Iran without the proper provision of the 1960s, the issue of immigration has led to a crisis of civilization and caused profound changes in architecture. The Iranian city and architecture from the beginning of the 60s, faces with the changes in and transformation of concepts and meanings. In other words, the “change of dreams”, as well as the overcoming quantity of quality and the changed aspect of most issues to quantitative or numerical factors (like economics) can show the importance of quantity while the concept of quality is expressed by quantitative indicators. The dreams of the Iranian society and the architectural changes affected by this quantity orientation have been studied in four periods, respectively. The first spit on the necessity of changing the past system governing Iran’s society and history was led by Abbas Mirza, following the defeat in the Second Iran-Russia War and thus, the study of the initial period of this change of attitude was conducted under the name of Abbas Mirzaie status and the dreams of the Iranian community; Following this, and in the next period, the dream of a change appears in the stature of the Constitutional Revolution and then, in the first Pahlavi period, the dream of change is intensified; The peak of dreaming is happening in the second Pahlavi era. With the Occurrence of the Islamic Revolution, this dream changes. Dreaming of the Iranian Society to change and pass the status quo, eventually with Negligence, led to a Sleepiness, which ultimately led to a break with the continuous flow of architecture. These discontinuities eventually affected the product of architecture (as the physical manifestation of culture). These conditions were influenced by the state of the society, represent the architecture that rebuilds this cycle, and cause the decline in the value of the architecture. As a result of the evolution of dreaming in Iranian society, “architecture” over the past decades has first become a “dependent architecture” (dependent on Western thinking and achievements) and “speculative architecture” and the “architecture of imitation” (imitation of the appearance of world architectures), “architecture of deception” (an intrinsic structure with a glamorous and advanced look), and it has become wandering and lost among the minds and massive physical faces, and ultimately becomes a “miraculous architecture” (the design or construction of dreams and physical imaginations). In the contemporary period, due to the speed of the changes and the fluidity of the culture, the recognition, and the subsequent control of the cultural components of the architecture is simply not possible and has been largely forgotten. This can be seen as the root cause of the decline in value aspect of contemporary architecture of Iran. The cultural architectural breakdowns and disturbances are the result of similar ruptures and failures in Iran’s culture and society. Today, the lack of familiarity with the biological and cultural features in each corner of the land of Iran as well as the incorrect recognition of its relation to the surrounding environment (on a variety of scales and in various aspects) is one of the most important neglects of the cultural breakdown in architecture. A neglection that drives all of this diversity by one stick and prescribes a single copy for building a building in its place. The impact of contemporary cultural transformations of Iran on Iran’s architectural transformations has been captured in four areas in this way; “The transformations of the face and the tone of architecture”, “interacting with patterns and versions of the Western world”, “foundation of thought transformation” and ultimately “the interaction and interaction of the thoughts of sovereignty and people.” This paper, in search of cultural discussions in the current status of Iranian architecture, points to the cultural discontinuities contained therein and has resulted them as in similar discrepancies in the culture and society of Iran. Reviewing the changes in the face and tone of architecture of Iran in contemporary period and addressing various ideas in the field of architecture and culture, by looking at the status of global developments and the relation between Iran and the West, show that what has undergone today’s architecture in the crisis, is its cultural-social point.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Contemporary Iranian Architecture
  • culture
  • Crisis of Civilization
  • Cultural Gap
  • Cultural Perplexity
  • Iranian Society

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