عناصر تشکیل‌دهنده نماها و جداره های شهری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد علوم و تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، پردیس بی نالمللی فارابی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در گذشته‌ای نه چندان دور، ساختمان‌ها، نه تنها از جنبه انفرادی و معطوف به خود، زیبا، شکیل و مطابق با اصول زیباشناختی بصری طراحی می‌شدند، بلکه در کمال احترام به بناهای پیرامونی، در زمینه طرح جای می‌گرفتند. این در حالی است که منظر شهرهای امروز ایران بی‌نظم، آشفته و نابه سامان است و این موضوع، ناشی از همنشینی ناهمگون و نامتجانس کالبد (فرم، شکل، نما)، فعالیت و فضا (اتفاقات درون شهر) در مقیاسی کلی و در مقیاس‌های خردتر، ناشی از عدم هماهنگی و تناسب در ترکیب عناصر (اجزا و ارکان) بناهایی است که در کنار یکدیگر شکل گرفته‌اند و به نمای شهری شکل داده‌اند. فراموشی جداره و نمای ساختمان‌ها و شهر به‌عنوان عضوی از منظر بصری شهر، تلقی و طراحی جداره خارجی ساختمان به‌عنوان سطح صاف و یکدست به همراه برخی الحاقات تزیینی، نادیده گرفتن و عدم شناخت عناصر تشکیل‌دهنده آن و غیره از دلایل ظهور مسأله مذکور است. عناصر و اجزایی که با نادیده گرفتنشان، کیفیت بصری و زیباشناسانه جداره‌ها و نماهای ساختمان‌ها و از آن ره، نمای شهری از بین رفته و تا حد سطحی منبعث از طراحی عملکردی داخل ساختمان تنزل کرده است. در این نوشتار به روش توصیفی و با استنتاج نتایج کاربردی، با هدف بازیابی و معرفی نقش هریک از اجزای متشکله نما و جداره ساختمان و شهر، بر پایه مرور متون و اسناد مرتبط در این زمینه، به بررسی آراء و نظرات صاحب‌نظران پرداخته شده است. پس از این بررسی، نتایج پژوهش، به صورت برآیندی از تمام نظرات مطرح شده، در قالب چارچوبی برای شناسایی عناصر تشکیل‌دهنده نمای ساختمان و شهر ارائه شده‌است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Constituent Elements of Urban Facade

نویسندگان [English]

  • Faranak Atarod 1
  • Hosein Kashi 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Student of Urban Planning, International College of Farabi, University of Art, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In the past not so long ago, the buildings not only were designed individually in accordance with visual aesthetic principles, but also were placed in the field of design in full respect of around buildings. In recent decades, rapid unrestrained increasing of building has strongly affected on disorderly of heterogeneous proximity of bodies, activities and events in overall city. It contains some cases like disproportion and dissonance of buildings located close to each other and forming urban façade. Those issues are consequences of forgetfulness of building and urban façade as a member of urban visual aspect, treating and planning exterior building’s wall as a smooth and homogeneous face with some decorative extensions, ignoring and misunderstanding constitutive elements of building façade, and etc. Visual quality of building and urban façade has been lost, because of neglecting facade’s elements and components, and it degrades to a face made of interior functional design of building. In order to prevent the increasing spread of building patterns which are formed without semantic, visual and ecological support, and form a heterogeneous mix of urban façade, it is imperative that the building and urban façade be considered as part of the city’s visual aspect. A deserving consideration to the subject requires the recognition of the constituent elements of the face. So, in this writing, having aim of retrieval and introduction of elements of building façade, expert’s opinions and viewpoints have been studied. It is based on reviewing literature and documents relating to this writing. At the end, results of research have presented as a consequence of all viewpoints, in a model, to recognition constitutive elements of urban and building façade. It was found that the facade of the building consists of four distinct major parts. Horizontal parts must be different from each other by changing their color, texture, materials, as well as the proportions, connections (arranging and arrangement) of the components and pillars. The specific part, corner section, is to be distinguishable by changing the height and volume, and ... from other parts. In other words, the four parts mentioned are contrasted with each other. These four major parts are:
1. Base part: The part that connects the building to the ground. This part is more exposed to the public due to its proximity to the earth. Accordingly, there must be a strong but flexible visual combination to accept various decorations and details.
2. Mid-section: It includes the building’s floors and is between the base and the roof section or crown.
3. The roof section: The part that connects the building to the sky.
4. Corner Section: The intersection of two urban gates that in addition to maintaining the continuity of the facade of both sides, should be emphasized by arrangements on its location. If it belongs to the street, it will be divided into 3 species: simple, decreasing and incremental, and if it belongs to the square will be on two species: simple and without corner. In addition to the four major sections, the facade of the buildings has pillars that play a structural role in their composition, including horizontal and vertical rhythms and facade lines which in the adjoining buildings of each other, play the role of the main skeleton of the urban façade and regulates the major parts. The vertical and horizontal pillars of the building are also formed based on the type of combination of building components and openings and functional and decorative details. In other words, the type of combination of pillars and components of the building should be studied in a two-way relationship between them. These façade pillars are:
1. The elements that create vertical and horizontal rhythms are categorized into two groups: the vertical / horizontal significant elements and the vertical / horizontal extensions of the repeating elements
2. Façade lines formed from the type of combination of above elements, including:
- The base line, which is the lower edge of the body of the street and its border with the sidewalk,
- Top ground floor, that is above shops and some entrances.
- Lines of floors that come from the connection of components of floor facade such as windows,
- Roofline and parapet
In the design of the components should note their three-dimensional feature, compatibility of scale with other components or with the pillars, balance/symmetry, and centrality in the overall composition, as well as in their internal divisions, the combination with each other in the formation of the façade pillars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Building Façade
  • Urban Façade
  • Elements of Façade
  • Façade Major Parts
  • Façade Pillars
  • Façade Components

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