ارتقاء کیفیت محیط شهری با استفاده از شاخص رنگ، نمونه موردی: میدان امام خمینی (ره) (توپخانه) تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

چکیده

فضای شهری به‌عنوان فضایی که انسان را در برگرفته، مهم‌ترین عامل و بستری برای تأثیرپذیری روی انسان‌ها است. رنگ‌هایی که در فضاهای معماری و شهری از قبیل بناها، نمای بیرونی و درونی و مبلمان شهری قرار دارند، جلوه‌های گوناگونی از رنگ‌ها را ایجاد و تأثیرات بنیادین و گوناگونی بر انسان م‌ی‌گذارند. عنصر رنگ از عناصر ویژه‌ای است که شناخت ویژگی‌ها، خصوصیات و تأثیرات آن بر انسان، راهی برای خلق محیط‌ها و فضاها ی شهری دلپذیر است. این مسأله زمانی اهمیت بیشتری می‌یابد که با در کنار هم قرار گرفتن نا هماهنگ بناها، برخورد سلیقه‌ای به این مقوله، استفاده از رنگ‌های ناموزون و عدم توجه به ویژگی‌های روانشناختی رنگ‌ها، فضاهایی را در شهرها ایجاد کرده است که نه تنها رنگ در شهرهای ما یاری رسان فضاهایمان نیست، بلکه خود به عاملی اغتشاش‌زا تبدیل شده است. هدف از این نوشتار واکاوی نقش و اهمیت رنگ در فضاهای عمومی جهت سنجش سطح رضایتمندی مردم از وضعیت رنگی این فضاهاست. با توجه به ای نکه مؤلفه‌های ذهنی کیفیت محیط رابطه مستقیمی با ادراک مردم از رنگ در فضاهای شهری دارند، پرسشنامه‌ای که توسط طیف لیکرات در راستای ارتباط این مؤلفه‌ها و ارتباطش با رنگ و شاخص‌های آن، تنظیم و در اختیار 329 نفر شرکت‌کننده قرارگرفته شد، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و در نهایت در تحلیل داده‌ها از نرم‌افزار SPSS استفاده شد. درنتیجه میزان رضایتمندی مردم از چگونگی به‌کارگیری رنگ در فضای میدان امام خمینی (توپخانه)، به‌عنوان یکی از نقاط کلیدی و پرتردد شهر، موردبررسی قرار گرفت که این نتایج نشان می‌دهند که مردم از هماهنگی رنگ‌های غالب به‌کار رفته در نمای ساختمان‌های اطراف میدان و حوزه بلافصل آن (کرم، سفید و طوسی) رضایت دارند ولی از اغتشاش رنگی ایجاد شده به علت برخورد سلیقه‌ای در نحوه نصب و رنگ تابلو مغازه‌ها و عدم استفاده درست از رنگ و مصالح در کف‌سازی و مبلمان اظهار نارضایتی می‌کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Promoting Urban Area Quality by Taking Benefit from Color Indicator, Case Study: Imam Khomeini (PBUH) Square in Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrdad Karimi Moshaver 1
  • Shabnam Sina 2
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
2 M.A. in Urban Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Color contributes to our everyday experience. The foundations for human life emerge in the places which are in parallel with architecture and urban development. Urban spaces are the most important factor and foundation for human impression. The space occupied by humans comes into existence with various forms of different colors viewed by the eyes. The colors used in architecture and urban spaces such as houses, workplaces, schools, different rooms of a building, interior and exterior views and urban furniture have diverse fundamental impacts on humans. Color in an urban environment is a function of the paint and other used coverings and the effect of surface colour is explored in this paper. The color as an element is unique and understanding its properties, characteristics and effects on humans is a way toward creation of pleasant urban environments and spaces. This becomes more important when modern cities are in color chaos. Bringing buildings together in an unpleasant way, using heterogeneous colors, and loss of attention to the psychological properties of colors have developed a space in cities which is in contradiction to the human spirit and there is no calmness and peace in them. As one of the most important visual elements, color is able to play an active and effective role in the general view of an urban area. However, unfortunately, due to the lack of consideration and unregulated handling of this issue, color cannot only be helpful in urban areas in our cities, but also in turn it becomes a turbulent factor. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this study to explicate the importance of color and how it is perceived by people. We want to figure it out how the concepts of color, impressive factors and other components affect color at different parts of the city and urban space and how its importance is understood by people by means of mental quality in the environment. The purpose of this article is to analyze the role and importance of color in public areas and discuss how people understand the color of these spaces as well as exploring how cities can use color in the hardscape of outdoor public spaces to enhance functionality and human experience. In consequence this essay is an attempt to explain the importance of color and the way we can use it in cities. This project adopts “descriptive analytical”, “review of literature” and library research methods as well as case studies, observations and data collection using field techniques. Based on the fact that mental quality components are directly correlated with the public understanding on color in urban areas, a questionnaire was drawn up by using Likert Range concerning the relationship of these components and its relation with the color and its indicators. The questionnaire was provided to 329 participants- residents, pedestrians, businessmen and users of Imam Khomeini Square - and eventually SPSS software was used for data analysis. The research findings suggest that the important point is that at any places, there are suitable samples in terms of color attributes and qualities which can be applied as a familiar model to the people’s mind in that specific area for new designs. Eventually, people’s level of satisfaction on the manner of using color in Imam Khomeini (PBUH) Square (Except Toupkhaneh), as one of the main and crowded area in the city was studied. The results indicate that people are satisfied with the arrangement and the dominant colors used in the square’s surrounding buildings facades and their immediate domains (beige, white, and grey), while they state that their dissatisfaction with the color-oriented turbulence emerged due to the unregulated handling regarding the method of installing and painting the shops signage and failure to use the paint and constructional materials correctly in flooring and furniture. Some issues in this regard are concerned to choose color organization, describe the shared information and knowledge and evaluate the consistence of color projects. This research investigates color by insisting on Mental Components of Environment Quality and variety of color in the city. Final aim of this research is releasing from monotony sceneries and obtaining variable and suitable environments through insisting on public partnership, paying specific attention to interest and perceive of people from their life. It should be noted that backgrounds of this research was selected according to specific time of this study and its conditions, urban square and limitation of case study: Tehran city. It is also valuable because it allows architects, urban designers and urban planners to consider how the positive attributes of color can be better incorporation into design and in order to improve cities, urban spaces and human experience.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Color
  • Area Quality
  • Mental Components
  • Environment Quality
  • Urban Space
  • Imam Khomeini (PBUH) Square

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