تبیین مؤلفه‌های هویت کالبدی شهر سنتی ایرانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری واحد شیراز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شیراز، ایران.

چکیده

هویت هر شهر را ویژگی‌ها و امتیازات آن شهر در دوره‌ای نسبت به دوره پیش مشخص می‌سازد. اجزا و عناصر سازنده شکل شهر، نحوه ترکیب آن‌ها و عامل زمان، همگی دارای قابلیت تداعی معنا، بالا بردن قابلیت ایجاد تصویر ذهنی، ایجاد حس مکان و هویت شهری هستند. آنچه قابل تأمل است وجوه اشتراک و تمایز شهرها با هم است. صفات هویتی شهر بر صفات هویتی طبیعی، مصنوعی و انسانی شهر مستقر است. لذا آنچه به‌عنوان تصویر در ذهن مردم متصور است، ناشی از سازمان فضایی شهر است. همچنین، عملکردهایی را در مقاطع زمانی مختلف می‌توان برای هر فضا تعریف کرد که با استناد به آن‌ها، تعریف شقوق مختلف هویت فضاهای شهری ایرانی (هویت کالبدی، هویت معنایی و هویت عملکردی) امکان‌پذیر می‌شود. برای این منظور باید دید تحولات هر دوره چگونه و تا چه حد بوده است. عناصر طبیعی، کالبدهای مصنوعی، ترکیب اقوام و نظام‌های سیاسی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی و حوادث تاریخی موضوعاتی هستند که بررسی تطبیقی آن‌ها در دوره‌های مختلف سبب شناسایی تمایزات هر دوره تاریخی از دوره دیگر شده و هویت شکلی آن شهر را سبب می‌شود. بنابراین نکته قابل تأمل این است که هویت تنها یک صفت نیست و مفهومی بیش از صفت را دارا است. هدف از این نوشتار تبیین مؤلفه‌های هویت‌بخش به شکل شهر ایرانی است. لذا مدل «مؤلفه‌های مؤثر در کالبد شهر » در چهار شهر ایرانی شیراز، اصفهان، یزد و بوشهر به آزمون گذاشته می‌شود. علت انتخاب این شهرها، وجود بافت تاریخی، ارزش تاریخی و شهری آن‌ها است. روش تحقیق با توجه به کنکاش در شکل شهر ایرانی به‌صورت توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش جمع آوری اطلاعات به صورت میدانی و اسنادی می‌باشد. نتایج حاصل حاکی از وجود مؤلفه‌های فرهنگی، سیاسی، اقلیمی و اقتصادی در شکل شهر سنتی ایرانی می باشد و در شهر اصفهان سیاست، شیراز فرهنگ، بوشهر اقتصاد و یزد اقلیم بر هویت کالبدی شهر دارای تأثیر بیشتری بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explanation of Components of the Physical Identity of Iranian Traditional Cities

نویسنده [English]

  • tahereh nasr
Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Identity of the city and its advantages can be found over time. Constructive elements of form, composition and method of operating time enable everyone to associate a meaning, enhancing the ability to create a mental image, a sense of place and urban identity. So characteristic of the city can create a mental image in the minds of its citizens. Consideration is what is common between both cities. Characteristics of urban identity is based on the natural, synthetic and human cities’ characteristics. So, the image in people minds might be the same from what is expected from the spatial organization of the city. Image of the city, including the degree of perception and recognition, links the city’s elements as well as the city and the its events, places and times with non-spatial concepts and values. Some factors affecting the design of components and urban forms are including culture, religion, construction methods and materials, the aesthetic concepts or residential treatment. These factors, alone or in combination with appropriate priorities can influence urban and architecture design. Every space, more or less, has an identity and the ultimate identity of the space is the subsequent of its functional, physical, environmental, cultural and semantic identities. This makes it possible to distinguish the Iranian urban space from urban spaces of other nations by determination of the identity characteristics of each kind of space. Unfortunately, today many cities have no identity, in the sense that if the environmental features of a city have many commonalities with those of another city, the two cities are said to have the same identity. Such a shared identity would be unfavorable. It is also possible that a city with its unique geographical, cultural, social, economic, political, and physical characteristics is environmentally responsive while another city with the same identity is found to have different geographical, cultural, social, economic, political, and physical characteristics. Therefore, it can be said that the latter suffers from the identity crisis since its physical characteristics are not compatible with its underlying shaping components. The purpose of this paper is to explain components of the physical identity of Iranian traditional cities. Therefore the “model of the urban form components” in four Iranian traditional cities -Shiraz, Isfahan, Yazd and Bushehr- will be put into the test. Selecting these cities is because of their historical context, their historical value and the city values. Research Results:
• Expression of Natural, Synthetic and Human Components of Physical Identity of City:
In general, the natural, synthetic or human components form the physical identity of cities. Natural structural components include geographic coordinates, climate, vegetation, soil variability, water route and … form the natural identity of the cities. Synthetic components include the totality of urban forms, structures of the cities, the most important indicators of cities (squares, gates, markets, palaces and important buildings of the cities) and urban mass (old districts). The human components include lineage and ancestry, the situation of religion, customs and dialects.                                                 • Expression of Components of Townscape, Urban Image, Urban Form and Urban Sense:                                           The Image of traditional Iranian cities includes townscape, urban image, urban form and urban sense. The overall affects that observer from various cities in mind, landmarks, paths, edges, nodes, districts, facades and urban spaces are substantial. Each of these items can vary in different cities. The sense of the city includes people and their activities, physical characteristics and sounds of the city or town smells. This research’s method explored in the Iranian cities is a descriptive - analytical and field method to gather information and documents are available. Therefore, to establish the formal identity of the cities may be introduced in the following:                                                           
1. Physical factors affecting identity formation Iranian city is formulated.                                                                    
2. Knowledge, understanding and skeletal structure of cities and efforts to preserve, regeneration and update them to safeguard the values inherent in contemporary cities. The results show that there are elements of cultural, political, economic and climate in the Identity of Iranian cities. In other words, the formation of many Iranian cities has been caused by these factors. So it can be stated:                                                                                                      1. Politics impacts on the identity formation in Isfahan.                                                                                               
2. Culture impacts on the identity formation in Shiraz.                                                                                               
3. Economic impacts on the identity formation in Bushehr.                                                                                         
4. Climate impacts on identity formation in Yazd.                                                                                         
Noteworthy is that lack of understanding and structure of traditional cities creates great harm to them. Moreover, efforts to preserve and restore the values of sustainable development in Iran has had a positive impact on traditional urban patterns. Components of identity and its impact on the city are significant as a prelude to understanding urban planners and those involved in the construction of cities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Form
  • Environmental Perception
  • Identity
  • Physical Identity Components in Iranian Cities

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