استفاده از مدل ارزیابی اقتصادی بازا رمحور جهت حفاظت از باغات سنتی شهر قزوین با استفاده از رویکرد انتقال حق توسعه (TDR)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار شهرسازی، دانشکده عمران و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی قزوین، قزوین، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد شهرسازی، دانشکده عمران و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی قزوین، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

افزایش جمعیت و تراکم در شهرها باعث تمایل توسعه گران برای استفاده بیش از پیش از اراضی شهری و در نتیجه فشار فزاینده به فضاهای باز و اراضی کشاورزی شده است. به دنبال راهکارهای عملیاتی و اجرایی برای حفاظت، دیدگاه های نوین در شهرسازی ارائه شده که رو کیردهای بازار محور از جمله این دیدگاه ها در دهه 90 است که منجر به تولید و ارائه ابزارهای کارامدی برای استفاده از ظرفیت های بازار در سیاست گذاری های شهری شده است. یکی از موفق ترین رویکرد های بازار محور در راستای حفاظت از فضاهای باز، انتقال حق توسعه است. انتقال حق توسعه در واقع به معنای حفاظت از زمین به وسیله انتقال حقوق توسعه از یک منطقه به منطقه ای دیگر است. در واقع این رویکرد به مالکین اجازه می دهد که حق توسعه را از قطعه مشخصی از ملکشان جدا کرده و به فروش برسانند و خریداران دیگر مالکان هستند که می خواهند تراکم زمین هایشان را افزایش دهند. شهر قزوین از جمله شهرهایی است که باغات وسیع میوه همچون حلقه ای سبز در پیوند با گذشته، بافت قدیمی شهر را در برگرفته و این باغات سنتی در حال حاضر در معرض تخریب هستند. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش روش تحلیلی است که با استفاده از داده های میدانی و بهره گیری از مدل های تحلیل ماتریسی و روش هزینه و فایده صورت گرفته است. شاخص های مورد نیاز برگرفته از تجارب جهانی اجرای پروژه های TDR انتخاب و با شرایط قزوین بومی سازی شده اند. نتایج نشان داد که ارزش افزوده حاصل از باغات سنتی به میزانی است که می توان در راستای حفاظت از آن ها مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. تحلیل سناریوها نیز نشان داد که هر چه میزان ارزش مازاد حق توسعه بیشتر باشد، امکان موفقیت روش انتقال حق توسعه بیشتر می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Market–base Economic Assessment Model Stimulation for Conservation Qazvin Traditional Gardens with Focus on Transfer Development Rights (TDR) Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Rafieian 1
  • Navid Saeidi Rezvani 2
  • Zohreh Mohassesian 3
1 Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, University of Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Urbanism, Faculty of Civil and Architecture, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.
3 M.A. of Urbanism, Faculty of Civil & Architecture, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Development and increasing population density in cities cause developers tendency to make more use of urban land and agricultural land, thus achieving an efficient way to conserve natural resources seem to be necessary. Experiences during the past decade shows that urban development plans and regulations for the protection of gardens and agricultural land are not very effective. Following of operational and administrative mechanisms to conservation, new perspectives on urban development is proposed that market-oriented approach of the world in the 90s is among the factors that led to the production and presentation of practical tools for capacity Market in urban policy and urban planning. One of the most successful market-oriented approaches in order to protect open spaces is transferring the development rights (TDR). TDR means protecting land by transferring development rights from one region to another region. In fact, TDR program allows owners to separate development right from certain parts of their property and sell off and Buyers often are other owners who want to increase their lands density. Qazvin is a city with large green gardens which have surrounded historical part of the city like a green ring in connection with past and the traditional gardens are now in danger of destruction. This study showed that the surplus value of gardens can be used in order to conserve them while the further rate of surplus value causes more possibility of successful TDR. So this research is presenting a pattern in order to protect the environmental values of Qazvin traditional gardens. Therefore, according to the nature of the research, the research method is descriptive-analytic based on the references to scientific and international documents while it attempts to identify the mechanisms of protection in the development right-transfer approach. This study uses the research method of comparative research resources and materials and their adaptation to present the basics of urban planning in Iran and consider the criteria, components and indicators. Finally, we use field data and taking advantage of matrix analysis models and cost and benefit method. The required indices are selected from the global experiences of implementation of TDR projects and have been localized with the requirements of Qazvin. In general, it can be acknowledged that the best possible scenario is the options for which the right to development is lower and the demand for development rights is greater. Considering the findings of the research and the results of the study of the TDR approach, taking into account the special measures and taking into account the situation and the context and context, this approach can be used to protect the agricultural lands and traditional gardens in Qazvin. The research also showed that components such as density, land price, area, etc. have a more effective role in applying this approach. In particular, this approach is more effective in protecting valuable gardens and terrains through public participation and the private sector, and can help to preserve the natural and historical identity of the city. This approach will establish spatial justice and will ensure investor benefits. TDR programs can be considered as the most effective program for preserving valuable land in societies with high growth rates and somewhat intelligent growth in the city. This executive approach is based on the creating of a motivation that develops indirect growth and helps maintaining and preserving parts of society that are needed through private-sector participation. In fact, the system utilizes a strengthened position and moderates declining values, low value when volunteers are eager to reduce their ownership development. The results showed that the value added from the traditional gardens could be used to protect them. Analysis of the scenarios also showed that the higher value of surplus of the right to development, the better possibility of success in the method of transferring the right to further developments. Therefore, the mechanisms for transfering of development right in the form of a solution can be expressed as follows:
1. Establishment of internal linkage of land use planning and urban production values and urban spaces.
2. Dividing the entire ownership of property into two ownership rights and developing and accepting the possibility of transferring them.
3. Adoption of surplus development on the right to the right to society and the means of realizing public interests
4. Management and continuous monitoring of the urban development market in pursuit of public interest
5. Organizing public-private partnerships as the basis for reforming relations with the public and sharing common space values.
6. To equip and strengthen the urban unit management as the main responsibility of local people.
7. Continuous review and monitoring of the development plan and transfer system of property rights based on system feedback and factor action.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Development Right
  • Transfer Development Right
  • Sending & Receiving Area-Gazvin Traditional Gardens

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