تأثیر نیازهای انسانی بر دلبستگی به محیط کالبدی در مسکن و پیش‌بینی عوامل مؤثر در ارتقاء آن، مطالعه موردی: شهر تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان، همدان، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان، همدان، ایران

چکیده

در این پژوهش، تأثیر نیازهای انسانی بر میزان دلبستگی مردم شهر تهران به سکونتگاهشان مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. برای نزدیک ساختن کیفیت ساخت به نیازهای واقعی مردم از خانه، سؤال‌های پژوهش شکل گرفت: اولویت نیازهای اساسی کاربران در خانه کدام است؟ علت چیست؟ کدام عوامل در خانه نیازهای اساسی را مرتفع می‌سازد و برای ساکنین نسبت به سکونتگاهشان، ایجاد دلبستگی می‌نماید؟ آیا نیازهای اساسی انسان در خانه از همان مراتب اولویت مدل مازلو تبعیت می‌کند؟ فرضیه پژوهش بر‌‌این ‌اصل است که نیازهای اولیه انسانی و به تعبیری نیازهای جسمانی و امنیت، باید طبق مدل پیشنهادی مازلو از اولویت بالایی بین ساکنین برخوردار باشد، اما جابه‌جایی‌ بین دیگر نیازها با توجه به‌وجود فرهنگ‌های متنوع در شهر تهران با مهاجرت‌پذیری بالا وجود دارد. در این خصوص430 پاسخنامه از بیش از 1000 پرسشنامه توزیع شده قابل بررسی شناخته شد. شاخص‌های این سنجش براساس نظریه هشاس1 استخراج و سؤالاتی برای سنجش میزان تأمین نیازهای انسانی مدل مازلو براساس تحلیل استیل2 در نظام‌های اجتماعی- کالبدی و مسائل طراحی، مطرح شد. هدف از طی این فرآیند، سنجش میزان رضایت‌مندی افراد از تأمین این نیازها با میزان دلبستگی به محل سکونت است. در پرسشنامه سؤالی مبنی بر اولویت‌بندی گزاره‌های مرتبط با مسائل سکونتگاه در مرتبه‌های مختلف نیاز انسانی طرح شد. این سؤال با 18 گزینه اولویت‌بندی مرتبه نیازها در نظام‌های اجتماعی- کالبدی و مسائل طراحی را می‌آزماید. گستردگی تحلیل موارد مؤثر بر اولویت‌بندی نیازها منجربه بررسی تنها سه مرحله اول نیاز انسانی شد، نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد، سه گزاره اول نیازهای انسانی در دلبستگی به محل سکونت بیشترین تأثیر را دارد. این نیازها شامل نیازهای جسمانی (سرپناه، دسترسی به خدمات)، امنیت و احساس‌تعلق می‌باشد. این پژوهش عوامل مؤثر بر رفع این نیازها را به‌وسیله آزمون همبستگی پیش‌بینی کرده است. اما آن چیزی‌که همچنان پاسخ می‌طلبد، تأثیر دیگر مراحل نیازهای انسانی بر خانه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Human Needs on Attachment to the Physical Environment in Housing and Prediction of Effective Factors that Contribute Toward Improvement, Case Study: Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Ali Tajer 1
  • Samira Asadi Boelvardi 2
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Student of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Numerous parameters affect dwellers satisfaction in a residential space. Some that are rising from cultural roots, and are dealing with the basic human needs are in priority. Having a thorough knowledge and understanding of these factors in the residential housing industry can lead to a better comprehensive decision making on restrictive regulations, allocation of budgets, and construction priorities in more significant scale. In recent years, investors in Tehran’s housing market, have been merely inclined towards the financial rewards of their projects and consequently the emotional bond and the relation between people and their place of living has been widely neglected. This approach has led to several consequences such as blind copying of exterior facades, ignoring the needs of residents, and in bigger picture inconsistency between the architectural design and the neighborhood culture and needs.
The questionnaire used in this study is designed to thoroughly investigate the importance of each of the numerous parameters that fulfill the dwellers’ basic needs in a building. To reach this end, more realistic approach is taken and hence the residents are asked about the main favorable factors they acknowledge in the space they occupy in real life rather than what they think it needs to be achieved. It is apparent that a pleasant space is a subjective matter and can be interpreted differently by each participant. This research will be focused on finding these crucial parameters in the design which has a strong influence on the satisfaction of the dwellers. Another study will be required to investigate how these factors can be reflected in the architectural design process.
In the following research, the effects of human necessities versus human interests in his habitats for residents of Tehran, has been evaluated. In this respect, in order to bring the quality construction to the masse’s real necessities according to their life styles, the following questions were formed: What are the priorities of resident’s basic needs? What are the causes? What are the basic elements and factors meeting the needs and whether they can cause incantation? Whether the resident’s basic needs follow the same priority of Maslow’s basic human needs? Hypothesis of this research is that the physical requirements and sense of security from the basic human needs, according to Maslow’s pyramid model will benefit from the high priority among the residents. But there is also the possibility to replace the other needs in their levels due to different cultures inhabiting in the city like Tehran that includes high rates of urban migration. As well the other hierarchy of requirements for the residents is not necessarily according to this model. In this respect, 430 out of 1000 questionnaires have been assessed based on people’s ties to their habitats and marked for further investigations. Then, the hallmarks of this comparison, based on Hashas’s Theory have been selected. Meanwhile, some questions regarding to human needs, based on Maslow’s theory and Steele’s analysis of social-fundamental societies, have been designed. The goal was to evaluate people’s satisfaction of their attachments to their habitats. In the questionnaires, there was also a question related to people’s habitation priorities based on the Human Hierarchy of Needs. This question with 18 answer choices examined the hierarchy of needs in social- fundamental societies.
The extent and analysis of effective issues at prioritization of needs led to study the first three stages of human needs. The results of this study showed, that the first three propositions of human needs according to Maslow’s model has the most effect in the local attachment. These requirements include physical needs (shelter, access to services), security and sense of belonging. In this research, Effective ways to meet the needs was predicted by the correlation
In the physical sector, the shelter needs has been seen more important than the service needs and the most important factors in the field of shelter needs: No destruction and problem in any part of house, no noise, and calm and appropriate dimensions and number of rooms.
In the safety sector, anything that is related to the safety of the house is more important for dwellers than the safety of outside issues.
In the need of sense of belonging (place attachment or sense of place), neighbors are the most important factor. Anticipating places for neighbors to be in touch with each other and the likelihood of dwellers in a building is an important and significant cultural factor which needs to be noticed in urban design and programming and to be put in the priority of the house building policies. But what must be also noted here are the other effects of human needs on a house or residence.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Human
  • House
  • Attachment
  • Human Needs

Altman, I. (2003). The Environment and Social Behavior (Privacy. Personal Space, Territory, Crowdings). (A. Namaziyan, Trans.) Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University.
Aryanpur Kashani, M. (2005). The Aryanpur Progrvessive Perioan- english Dictionary (One Volune, Concise). Tehran: Jahan Rayaneh.
Behzad far, M., Naderi, M., & Foruzan gohar, H. (2009). Citizen Perceptions of Good Alley. Journal of HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA, (4), 111.
Burt, w.H. (1943). Territoriality and Home Range Concepts as Applied to Mammals. journal of Mammalogy, 346-352.
Carr, S., Prancis, M., Rivlin, L., & Stone, A. (1992). Public Space. New york: Cambridge University Press.
Daneshpour, A., Sepehri Moghadam, M., & Charkhchian, M. (2009). Explanation of the Sense of Space and Analyzing of Dimensions and its Different Aspects. HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA, 38, 37-50.
De vido, A. (2004). House Design: Art and Practice. (I. Khajeh Zadeh, & F. Yavari, Trans.) Tehran: Rozaneh.
Filin, V. (1992). Videoecology. Moscow: Tass-Reklama.
Gifford, R. (2012). Environmental Psychology. San Diego: Academic Press.
Hall, E.T. (1997). The Hidden Dimension. (M. Tabibiyan, Trans.) Tehran: University of Tehran.
Hashas, M. (2003). Residents’ Attachment to New Urbanist Versus Conventional Sububan Developments. North Carolina State University: ph.D. Dissertation in Community and Environmental Design.
Javan Foruzaneh, A., & Motalebi, G. (2011). The Concept of Sense of Belonging to a Place and its Constituent Factors. Hoviateshahr, 8(2), 27-37.
Lang, J. (2012). Creating Architectual Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. (A. Eiynifar, Trans.) Tehran: University of Tehran.
Lawson, B. (2001). The Language of Space. London: Butter Worth- Heinemann.
Linch, K. (1997). A Theory of Good City From. (H. Bahreini, Trans.) Tehran: University of Tehran.
Mohseni, M., & Salehi, P. (2002). Social Satisfaction in Iran. Tehran: Aron.
Moslow, A. (1988). Motivation and Personality. Mashhad: Astan Qods Razavi.
Naderi, E., & Seif Naraghi, M. (1988). Sensation and Perception. Tehran: Badr.
Nasr, S. (1976). Art in Persian Culture. Cambridge: Golgonooza press.
Newman, O. (1972). Defensible Space; Crime Prevention Through Urban Design. Washington, D.C.: Macmillan.
Pakzad, J., & Bozorg, H. (2012). Environmental Psychology Alphabet for Designers. Tehran: Armanshahr.
Rapoport, A. (1969). House Form and Culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
Rapoport, A. (1977). Human Aspects of Urban Form: Towards a Man-Environment Approach to Urban form and Design. Michigan: Pergamon Press.
Rapoport, A. (2005). The Meaning of the Built Environment. (F. Habib, Trans.) Tehran: Processing & Urban planning Co.
Roberts, c., & Russell, J. (2002). Angles on Envitonmental Psychology. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes Ltd.
Safar Zadeh Khoshabi, K., & Abu Hamzeh, E. (2007). John Bowlby (Attachment Theory). Tehran: Danjeh.
Steele, F. (1981). The Sense of Place. Boston: CBI Publishing Company.
Webster’s Universal Dictonary. (1977). New York: Webster Universal Press.