نگرش روانشناختی به نقش جنسیت در قابلیت‌های ادراک فضای معماری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر دکترای معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

2 استادیارگروه معماری و شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

زنان و مردان ویژگی‌های شخصیتی متفاوتی دارند که بررسی این تفاوت‌ها به ‌جهت آماری و تفسیری معنا‌دار است. در جامعه نیز، تفاوت‌های نسبتاً بارزی از نظر روانشناختی در ادراک فضای معماری وجود دارد که توجه به این امور برای دستیابی به شناخت علمی از نحوه ادراک زنان و مردان از فضاهای معماری و چگونگی نگرش آن‌ها بر عوامل تأثیرگذار در کیفیت بصری فضا حائز اهمیت است. مسأله اصلی در این تحقیق نادیده انگاردن جنبه روانشناختی جنسیت در فرآیند طراحی فضای معماری است که این امر مشکلات روحی و جسمی را به مرور زمان بر روی کاربر فضا به‌جا می‌گذارد. بنابراین، در این نوشتار، بررسی نحوه ادراک زنان و مردان از محیط مصنوع و فضای معماری با توجه به عامل جنسیت و با تأکید بر عناصر بصری بوجود آورنده فضا در معماری می‌باشد. در این پژوهش، مبانی نظری موجود در رابطه با ویژگی‌های روانشناختی جنسیت و ادراک فضا به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی بررسی شده و سپس براساس مبانی نظری موجود، نحوه ادراک محیط براساس چهار مؤلفه الف) تجسم ذهنی و ادراک سه بعدی فضا، ب) ادراک عناصر بصری فضا، ج) تجسم و ادراک شنیداری و د) ادراک فضای اجتماعی، به صورت یک پرسشنامه تنظیم و بین تعدادی از زنان و مردان شهر تبریز که با روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شده‌اند، مورد سنجش قرارگرفت. نتایج حاصل در نرم افزار SPSS مورد تجزیه و تحلیل آماری قرار گرفتند که حاکی از وجود رابطه‌ای معنادار بین جنسیت و میزان ادراک عناصر بصری فضا هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Psychological Approach to Role of Gender in Abilities of Architectural Space Perception

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rafieh Lelhaj 1
  • Mir Saeed Moosavi 2
1 Ph.D. Researcher in Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture and Urbanism, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Men and women have different personality characteristics which are statically and descriptively significant to be observed and analyzed. It is a fact that a clear distinction is typically made between human beings depending on their gender. Besides, there are slightly obvious differences between the psychological nature of perceptions from an architectural space between men and women. In society paying attention to these differences is important and can promote the ability to scientifically understand the different perceptions of men and women from architectural spaces and the way that they influence the visual quality of space. The distinction between men and women, depending on one’s sex, has a long history and it is present in all societies under various forms. Regarding to different appearance of human beings, physical differences and abilities have played a role in this distinction. Indeed, due to their greater physical strength, men were usually in charge of hunting and other outdoor activities which required more strength. On the other side, women, who were considered weaker, and with the physical capability of bearing children, were consequently in charge of less physically demanding tasks such as picking berries, taking care of the household or rearing children. Throughout centuries, masculine and feminine roles have become standardized. Today, men and women are expected to follow certain behaviors that are considered specific to one’s gender. In this sense, in today’s interconnected societies, gender-differentiated roles and behaviors seem more globally established.
While for most personality variables there is no or only rather inconsistent support for gender differences (which appears to suggest that similarities in personality exceed the differences between men and women), for other personality variables support is stronger and more consistent. Regarding to several literature reviews in which the empirical results concerning sex differences in personality have been analyzed, it can be noted that the general gender differences are rather consistently found in empirical investigations.
All these qualified differences in personality are, of course, based on mean comparisons, which in numerous empirical investigations have reached statistical significance. In the vast majority of prevailing research on gender differences, only morphological gender was the ‘independent’ variable. Therefore, the reported findings do not represent general gender differences in personality, but rather some low to moderate differences between the actions and behavior of two sexes. The main issue of this research is then, related to ignorance of the psychological aspect of gender in design process of architectural space which consequently leads to spiritual as well as physical problems for users of the space. Therefore, the main intention in this research was to analyze the perception of men and women from built environment and architectural space regarding the influential factor of gender with emphasis on visual elements of architectural space. Given how opinions and perceptions from individuals with different genders and life style or cultural backgrounds were studied, a combination of qualitative and quantitative research was appeared an appropriate method for this study. Therefore, in this study, theoretical background regarding the psychological characteristics of gender were reviewed by descriptive-analytical method and then, based on the existing theoretical framework, the perception way from environment was studied based on the four categories of a) mental imagination and 3d perception of space, b) perception of visual elements in space, c) audial imagination and perception and finally d) perception of social space were surveyed using a questionnaire distributed among a randomly selected members of a sample group of men and women in Tabriz.
The questionnaire was first developed based on the literature review, and then approved by several experts before being distributed. Once approved, the final version was reviewed by other experts and compared to the original one to ensure that the questionnaire keeps its intended meaning while being at the same time appropriate to the way of thinking of respondents. The results of the survey were analyzed by SPSS software which revealed a significant relation between the gender difference and perception of visual elements in architectural space. Also, significant differences were obtained from the findings of the study regarding the extent of perceiving visual spatial elements by women in different ages and education levels. All these results are in conformity with existing scientific and theoretical discussions concerning the extent and quality of visual spatial elements perception by women and effective factors in the perception. In addition to having a significant relationship between visual spatial elements perception, differences and order of extent attention to each one of visual elements and significant effect of others’ presence in perceiving the nature of an architectural space and the high correlation between these elements implied that modification of each one of these elements and criteria in designing architectural spaces can have a considerable impact on the quality and extent of a space’s acceptability for the users.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Perception
  • Gender
  • Architecture
  • Space

Colomnia, B. ed. (1992). Sexuality and Space. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
Gibson, J. J. (1966). The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Harding, S. (1986). The Science Question in Feminism. Cornell University Press.
Hayden, L. (1976). Sex Symbol. Fiona Richmond.
Hosseinzadeh, A. (2012). Differences between Men and Women and the Role and Function. Journal of Marfat, 10(74), 61 -71.
Ittelson, W. (1973). Environment Perception and Contemporary Perceptual Theory. In W.H. Ittelson (Ed.), Environment and Cognition. New York: Seminar, 141-154.
Khosravi, Z. (2003). Psychological Foundations of Gender. Alzahra University Press, Tehran, Iran.
Kiavar, D. (2011). User Assessment in Public Spaces by Gender: A Survey on Seğmenler and Kecgoren Parks in Ankara. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Architecture, Middle East Technical University.
Lang, J. (1987). Creating Architectural Theory. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Madanipour, A. (2003). Public and Private Spaces of the City. Routledge, London.
Mazaheri, M.A. (2004). Convention from the Psychology Approach. Journal of Philosophy and Theory, 8(31), 2-19.
Moazeni, S.M., & Moazeni S.A. (2012). Psychological Differences of Women and Men. Journal of Mental Health, 8(41), 20-26.
Pease, B., & Pease, A. (2001). Why Men don’t Listen and Women can’t Read Maps? Pease International Pty Ltd. New York.
Proshansky, H.M. (1978). The City and Self-Identity. Environment and Behavior, 10(2), 147-69.
Raeisi, Z. (2001). Introduction to Marriage Psychology. Mani Publications, Isfahan.
Rendell, J. (2000). Introduction to Gender and Space. Gender, Space, Architecture: An Interdisciplinary Introduction, Routledge.
Safiri, Kh., & Imanian, S. (2009). Sociology of Gender. Sociologist Publication, Tehran, Iran.