نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.
2 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The rail transport system is one of the most important and main factors of economic and scientific development, during the industrial revolution. In Iran, ways are designed based on cargo and closed to 6% of cargoes are supplant by rails and trains. In the field of passenger, high demand and restrictions in the facilities, have caused decline in providing services. So evolution in the providing services for passengers, is too necessary and serious. In these days, many psychological problems have been occurred, because of increasing the expansion of human societies, that the main results of it, are lack of knowledge and inattention to environment and its impact on human, and also the impact of human and his artifacts on the environment. One of the components of rail transport is station, its building and services. Station is a place that according to the conditions has different functions. The squares of railway stations usually are one of the main and most important urban symbols of cities. Station is the starting point of growing and development and it supplies concepts in an understandable and concrete format for newcomers and belonging sense of citizens, from the cultural perspective. Station despite of the clear definition in the field of science and technical railway engineering, has no specified meaning in architecture, because of its twofold quiddity. The main reason of it, is that in architectural science, in addition to technical principles of building science, the theories of environmental psychology is considered too. Station has various functions and it should present different services and cover people’s objective and mental needs. Most important factors that caused people to preferring a place and not the others, are: safe atmosphere, independence, being natural, having something to learn and social opportunities. The quality and coordinates of a place, can be measured by people’s feeling and excitements. Experts and researchers believe that when some places have a better support for the needs of people, they can be more popular. For example, Passengers in different states of mind enter the station every day and waiting time is usually an unavoidable aspect of the journey for train passengers. At train stations, passengers are regularly confronted with waiting times, which is no fun but often tolerable. Depending on the circumstances, waiting for a service can evoke a wide range of negative reactions, such as boredom, irritation, anxiety and stress. According to the attention model of time, pleasant surroundings and other forms of distraction reduce waiting time. When light, colour, music and digital video screens are used in the right way, it is possible to make time spent waiting on station platforms pass more pleasantly and even to shorten perceived waiting times. So there are many reasons for passengers to be stressed and have bad mood and it is clear that changing these feelings is one of the mental obligations of stations’ atmosphere. As a result, it is important to have the knowledge of environmental psychology’s factors to design the building of stations and especially their interior design.
This study investigates if railway stations in Iran are based on the principles of environmental psychology of passengers or not. The target in this research is determination of standards of passengers by environmental psychology. In this article, according to the hypothesis of incompatibility of stations in Iran with environmental psychological standards, architectural items linked to environmental psychology are analyzed. According to the prepared questionnaires, opinions of passengers, attendances and farewell manufacturers are been investigated. The results has given some suggestions about the design of stations regarding to architecture and environmental psychology. The study uses data collected from passengers in Zanjan and Tabriz stations. A total of 150 passengers from both Zanjan and Tabriz stations, filled out a questionnaire devised by the researcher. The questionnaire included three group questions, that each group had 32 questions. The groups were about physical, service and visual factors. Results indicated that in the current status of Zanjan station, physical and service factors were inappropriate and visual items were average. In the Tabriz station, all of the factors were inappropriate. Also analysis showed that the first preference of the passengers was service factors and the last was visual. The entrance of site was the most important item, and color of walls and floor was the last and it means that it is not very important that what color the walls and roof are. According to the results entrance of site should guide people to main building and do not make the newcomer passengers, confused.