عنوان مقاله [English]
Considering the fast growth of population in cities and communications over the past decade, most people communicate with each other in the virtual world while, compared with the past, less people interact with their surroundings and their residents. Reflecting on the history of Iran, one can see samples of the relationships between the citizens in the periodical markets of urban space as one of the most important institutions of society in the centers of neighborhood.
Periodic markets are a type of public space in cities where people are extensively and continuously present with different ethnic and age groups. Periodic markets have long antiquity and are a type of market that provide goods for rural people as a place for exchanging rural goods with cities. Indeed, they are places for the activity of various individuals who are engaged in the market with different motives, including economic, social and cultural dimensions. Periodic markets are usually held on both sides of a route, in a space used by commuters or even inside a square. These markets are without an architectural space, although in some cases, they are traditionally held in open or shaded spaces utilizing light and inexpensive materials so that goods are protected against sunlight or rainfall.
Socially and economically, attendance and social activities of individuals in periodic markets are different in terms of their scale of organization and population of sellers and customers in comparison with other markets. They also differ in terms of the type of activity, in that they have a smaller and local scale and the relationships are warmer and closer. Periodic markets are a socioeconomic venue for numerous villagers and city dwellers. In these markets, both men and women participate in trade, and in some regions where industrial products are important, most often representative of the industry themselves, for example, mat weavers come to the markets to sell their products. Periodic markets can be seen as areas recognized as an urban social space and a space for attendance. ,Markets have been traditionally held in urban spaces and are a setting for attendance and social interactions along with meeting the primary needs of people; nonetheless, the paramount importance of practical methods for augmenting the public space has been neglected.
In this study, based on the descriptive-survey and documentary studies, the impact of periodical markets in social interactions and relationships among the local citizens and neighbors in their quarter-dwelling population have been studied. The study population consisted of residents including six neighborhoods of Hamadan. Accordingly, the residents of three neighborhoods existing in the periodical markets named Shanbeh-Bazar, Seshanbeh-Bazarh, Panjshanbeh-Bazar have been compared with their three corresponding quarter where the periodical markets are not established. In fact, Hamadan sees nine street markets a week in its different areas, out of which in order to obtain more accurate results, these neighborhoods were selected for the study, corresponding with each other in terms of economic and socio-cultural structures.
Hamadan has a long history; its geographical location includes first, a wide plain in which the city is located, and second, Alvand Mountains where the rest of the city is situated on the hillside. This geographical characteristic made Hamadan a long-lasting traditional habitat center. For instance, during the Parthian and Sassanid periods, Hamadan was an important center of administrative and commercial activities. The city was developed in the Islamic period around its main central mosque and market, and it remains an area of interest for historians and geographers. Geographical situation and being located within the trade routes and caravans allowed Hamadan to enjoy an integrated economic and business structure over different periods. Despite the fact that the city mainly consisted of religious structures such as mosques and tombs, the economic structure of this city was its essence, proven by the current condition of its markets. The number of neighborhoods and neighborhood centers, coupled with buildings such as mosques and other public buildings, strongly indicate the social condition and architectural structure of the city.
The results show that in the neighbourhoods where there are periodical markets, compared with neighbourhoods without periodical markets, the extent of familiarity among the neighbors and social interactions were more noticeable due to factors such as attractiveness of markets for people and the high presence of peoples in such markets. Also, the results showed that there were a direct relationship between the quality of temporary markets organization and the increase in the extent of sociability and social interactions. The recovery of periodical markets and their organization, if based on intelligent locality and need, encourage citizens to participate more in their communities and cause to increase the interaction and intimacy between residents as a semantic component, and offer identity to the neighborhoods and lead to increasing the attendance for neighborhoods residents.