مقایسه ابعاد حس مکان در دو فرهنگ عربی و ایرانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس‌ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

فرهنگ و زبان بر یکدیگر تأثیرات دو جانبه‌ای دارند. زبان باعث تکامل فرهنگ است و تا حدودی سمت و سوی آن را نیز تعیین می‌کند و فرهنگ، با تعیین محدوده‌ آن‌چه مهم یا کم اهمیت است، بر شکل‌گیری ساختار زبان مؤثر واقع می‌شود. به عبارت دیگر، انسان‌ها در جوامع گوناگون واقعیت‌های متفاوتی را می‌بینند، زیرا به زبان‌های متفاوت سخن می‌گویند و هر زبانی واقعیت را در قالب جداگانه‌ای برنامه‌ریزی می‌کند. یکی از راه‌های بررسی و فهم آن‌چه افراد ادراک و فهم می‌نمایند، مقایسه میان فرهنگی است. هدف از این پژوهش نیز قیاسی بین فرهنگی (فرهنگ ملیتی) در زمینه ابعاد مؤلفه ادراکی فضای شهری،‌«حس مکان» می‌باشد. زیرا این مؤلفه ادراکی به‌عنوان عامل ارتقاء میزان رضایت و فهم از محیط در فضاهای شهری به ویژه عرصه‌های حضور زائران و گردشگران نظیر محدوده مطالعاتی منتخب که در همجواری حرم مطهر قرار داشته ضرورت می‌یابد. چراکه این محدوده (بازارچه حاج آقاجان واقع در بست طبرسی) در تمامی اوقات درگیر تعاملات مستقیم  انواع دسته‌بندی فرهنگ‌ها و خرده‌فرهنگ‌ها بوده و همین امر بحث ادراک در فضا را به چالش کشانده است که در این راستا روش‌شناسی تحقیق مبتنی بر مشاهده، پرسش‌نامه بوده و تحلیل به کمک آزمون واریانس چند متغیری، آزمون همبستگی پیرسون و تکنیک نقشه‌های شناختی می‌باشد که بر روی 138 نفر از زائران عرب و ایرانی تبار (69 زائر ایرانی و 69 زائر عربی) انجام گرفته است. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق حاکی از وجود تفاوت معنادار و اشتراک قوی بین بعد کالبدی حس مکان در دو فرهنگ عرب و ایرانی می‌باشد که با تقویت شاخصه‌های آن می‌توان حس مکان را در دو فرهنگ ملیتی عرب و ایرانی تقویت نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing the Dimentions of “Sense of Place” in the Arab and Iranian Culture

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyede Shima Hosseini Baygi 1
  • Toktam Hanayi 2
  • Maryam Ostadi 2
1 M.A. of Urban Design, Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University-Mashhad Branch (IAUM), Mashhad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Urban Design, Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University- Mashhad Branch (IAUM), Mashhad, Iran...
چکیده [English]

Culture and language are mutually influence each other. Language, to some extent, evolutionize a culture and it may also determines the direction of the culture and the scope of what is important or unimportant formation of the structure of a language which could be effective on one other as well. In a nutshell, people see different realities in different societies, because they speak different languages and each language reality in the form of a separate plan.
By the same token, there is too much interdependency between thought and language and it can be said that equally the structure of the language originated from culture and then acted to strengthen the ideas reciprocally. One way of studying and understanding what people perceive and act is comparing cross-culturally. Therefore, perception is a purpose-oriented process and depends on the culture, attitude and value governing perceptual thinking. Hence, the process of perception is always associated with human recognition of the environment. Also spaces that always interact with different cultures and languages have challenged people’s perceptions of the environment. And in order to solve this problem, one had to seek a quality of space that digest the challenge of the multiplicity of cultures-languages and help them to improve their perceptions at the community levels. Sense of place is one of the common components of human emotions. According to Yang Zhu, the semantic structures of space and environment are made to create sets of specific qualities and create sense of place and the sense of location-attitudes, worldviews, and the linkage of people with elements of places, such as the name of the place, placeholder tales, place experiences, and spiritualties with the place dependencies.
In the same vein, there is no exception for urban spaces in Mashhad, especially in the central context of the city due to the presence of pilgrims with various nationalties as well as different cultures. Besides, the perceived levels of perceptions completely diminished. Haj Aghajan Market as one of the oldest bazaars in Mashhad and its proximity to the holy shrine of Imam Reza and the importance of identity and memorization for its residents and its citizens, was selected as a case study. In recent years due to presence and existence of Arabs, Turkish and Kurdish pilgrims, identity and sense of place have been seriously damaged.
The main aim of this study is the comparison between the cultural components of urban spatial perception, “sense of place”. Cognitive component of satisfaction plays a role as a promotion and understanding of the environment in urban areas. In this regard, research methodology based on observation, inventory and multi-variable analysis of variance and techniques of cognitive maps were used. 138 participents were investigated including Arab and Iranian pilgrims (69 Iranian pilgrims and 69 Arab ones).
The results of this study indicate a significant difference between the physical sense of place and strong participation of sense of place in both Iranian and Arab culture. Also regarding the issue of cultural influence and cultural dimensions (among the Arabs and Iranians) on the sense of place from the market of Haj Aghajan, it can be stated that to inject the level of understanding and enhance the perception of space from what is being designed and what is meant by its design is to enhance the marketplace’s sense of place. It was necessary to add factors of time and pause to the spaces. While these spaces should have the charm and primal conditions of every culture in their most beautiful form. So that they can captivate their audiences and make the audiences more likely to pause and spend time in that space. On the other hand, the results indicate that after reaching a common understanding among cultures, in order to understand the common sense of place in the market, the physical form will act and target the sense of place. Because the analysis of multivariate variance test is also evidence of similar similarities between Arabs and Iranians in the physical dimension of sense of place. This dimension (later, a sense of place in Arabic culture) has a meaningful and direct relation with the perceptual-semantic and functional dimension of sense of place in Iranian culture according to the Pearson correlation matrix. Therefore, it is possible to assess the perceptual and functional expectations of the sense of place according to the Iranian culture and the estimation of Arab physical expectations of the sense of place. According to the culture of Arab-speaking audiences, it is possible to sense the place in the common space in the marketplace indeed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Culture and Languages
  • Sense of Place Dimensions
  • Cultural Comparisons

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