واکاوی رویکردها و زمینه‌های نظری و تدوین چارچوب مفهومی منظر شهر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

منظر شهر و ادبیات مربوط به آن که نقش مؤثری در زمینه ارتقای کیفیت محیط در فضاها و عرصه‌های عمومی شهرهای امروزی ایفا می‌نماید، در طی قرن گذشته و در آستانه هزاره سوم به‌طور بی‌سابقه‌ای گسترش یافته و مورد توجه جدی معماران منظر، طراحان و برنامه‌ریزان شهری قرار گرفته است. در این میان، نظریه‌پردازان گوناگون با رویکردهای متفاوتی این موضوع را مورد بحث و بررسی قرار‌داده‌اند. در پژوهش حاضر به‌منظور ارزیابی و تدقیق نظرات مطرح‌ترین متفکران مرتبط با منظر شهر و تدوین چارچوب مفهومی منظر شهر، به روش مطالعه اسنادی و با استفاده از متون واجد ارزش در این عرصه، ضمن بررسی تعاریف و مفاهیم منظر شهر؛ نوین‌ترین ایده‌ها، نظریه‌پردازان، نظریات و بحث‌های کلیدی و دیدگاه‌های آنان راجع به منظر شهر به همراه بیان مکانیزم طبقه‌بندی و چارچوب گونه‌شناسی رویکردها برای اولین بار در قالب چهار دوره زمانی عمده تدوین شده است. این دوره‌های زمانی که از انقلاب صنعتی تا جنبش منظر شهر (1960)، جنبش منظر شهر تا جنبش نوشهرسازی (1960ـ1990)، جنبش نوشهرسازی تا جنبش شهرسازی منظر (1990ـ 1997) و جنبش شهرسازی منظر تاکنون (1997ـ2014) را شامل می‌شوند، به تفکیک در پنج محور زیباشناختی؛ زمینه‌گرایی شامل ادراک فضایی ـ بصری، ادراک بصری ‌ـ رفتاری؛ نوشهرسازی، توسعه نوسنتی بافت‌ها و مناطق شهری؛ شهرسازی منظر و شهرسازی اکولوژیکی همراه با مؤلفه‌های رایج در هر دوره ارائه شده است. همچنین در راستای تدوین چارچوب مفهومی و زمینه‌های نظری منظر شهر به واکاوی آرای 23 صاحب‌نظر در عرصه منظر شهر پرداخته و مهم‌ترین ابعاد و شاخص‌های منظر شهر از نظر آنان شناسایی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Urban-scape: An Analysis of the Approach and Theoretical Background to Develope a Conceptual Framework

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shabnam Shamlou 1
  • Mohammad Nagizadeh 2
  • Farah Habib 3
1 Ph.D. in Urban Planning, Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Urban-scape and its literature which has been playing a major role in improving the quality of environment in the public spaces and landscapes of today’s cities has been widely developed through the last century and on the threshold of the third millennium, which attracted the attention of landscape architects, urban designers, and planners. The urban-scape and the indicators of its arrangement are considered one of the main concepts in measuring the sustainability of cities. This concept, along with the subjects such as urban health, quality of life and urban livability, have become the principles considered by international institutions for ranking the world’s cities. Based on this, and with the evolution of new contexts and developments of urbanism influenced by the changes in the environmental system and international economics, the urban-scape theories have also been affected by this approach both in the process and in the content of material changes. Having considered that, the present article attempts to analyze the most important theoretical prospects in this field, to perform comparative comparisons of the relevant approaches, and to provide a conceptual framework for the city’s urban-scape in the future. Urban-scape subject has been studied through various approaches and prospects by different scholars and theorists. In the present study, in order to assess and elaborate on the views of the most prominent scholars on the urban-scape as well as to develop a conceptual framework for it, through the documentary study method and valid references in this field and by reviewing the definitions and concepts of the urban-scape, the most innovative ideas, key theories and controversial discussions available on the urban-scape, along with the explanation of the classification mechanism and the typology of approaches, are studied and categorized for the first time in the form of four major periods of time. These time periods which are from the Industrial Revolution to the Townscape Movement (1960), the Townscape Movement to the New Urbanism Movement (1960-1990), the New Urbanism Movement to the Landscape Urbanism Movement (1990-1997), and the Landscape Urbanism Movement to the present (1997-2014) include five different subjects of aesthetic; context-oriented including visual-spatial perception, visual-behavioral perception, new urbanism, landscape urbanism and ecological urbanism, along with the common components of each period. In addition, in order to establish the conceptual framework and the theoretical context of urban-scape, we have analyzed the views of 23 experts in this field where the most important aspects of urbanism have been identified. The logic behind this classification and the classification mechanism of the above approaches can be found in the thoughts and theories of the first movement’s theorist at the beginning of each period, in the identification of the ideas of the scholars having similar influential attitudes on the topic, and finally in the formation and improvement of the approaches taken from the ideas of the above-mentioned scholars. For instance, “Camillo Sitte” initiated an aesthetic approach during the Industrial Revolution to the Townscape Movement and emergence of an aesthetic (visual) component by introducing “City Planning According to Artistic Principles” in 1889. After that, with the generalization of context-oriented discussions, and in particular the “Townscape Movement” by the “Gordon Cullen” in 1960, the period of the Townscape Movement to New Urbanism with contextual approach began, and the aesthetic (perceptual and conceptual) and functional components along with the aesthetic (visual) component were introduced from the previous period and were formed based on the subdivision of visual spatial perception. After that, the other subdivision of the context-oriented approach, i.e., visual perception-behavioral subdivision was formed with the emergence of the “Space Syntax” by “Bill Hillier” and “Julienne Hanson”, and the incorporation of the element of behavioral science into previous components in 1984. Then, the third period, the period from the New Urbanism Movement to the Landscape Urbanism Movement began with the introduction of New Urbanism and Urban Sustainability with an approach to the neo-traditional development of the texture and urban areas in 1990, and thus the environmental component was added to the previous components of the earlier periods. And now in the fourth period of the typology of the urban-scape historical evolution, as “Charles Waldheim” introduced and initiated the “Landscape Urbanism” in 1997, a landscape urbanization approach has been emerged. This is an approach in which the landscape and open space are considered the main elements of the city’s construction, and the multi-level, contextual and complex components have been added to other previous components. Finally, the Ecological Urbanism approach introduced by “Mohsen Mostafavi” in 2010 and the multi-component with ecological insights was added to the components of the previous periods. The four major time periods identified and categorized for the first time in the present study, are discussed in detail.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban-scape
  • Typology
  • Theoretical Movements
  • Historical Evolution
  • Conceptual Framework

Appleyard, D. (1976). Planning a Pluralistic City. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Appleyard, D., Lynch, K., & Myer J.R. (1964). The View from the Road. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Boone, Ch., & Modarres, A. (2009). City and Environment. (M. Tabibian, Trans.). Tehran: Tehran University Co.
Calthorpe, P. (1993). The Next American Metropolis. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
Carmona, M., Heath, T., Oc, T., & Tiesdell, S. (2003). Public Places-Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. London: Architectural Press.
Caves, Roger W. (2005). Encyclopedia of the City. New York: Routledge.
Corner, J. (2006). Terra Fluxus. The Landscape Urbanism Reader, Charles Waldheim, (Ed); New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 21-33.
Cowan, R. (2005). The Dictionary of Urbanism. Wiltshire: Streetwise Press.
Cullen, G. (2003). The Concise Townscape. (M. Tabibian, Trans.). Tehran: Tehran University Co.
Cullen, G. (2007). Townscape: Introduction. Urban Design Reader, Matthew Carmona and Steve Tiesdell, (Ed); Oxford: Architectural Press.
Duany, A. (2003). Neighborhood Design in Practice. Urban Villages and the Making of Communities, Peter Neal (Ed); London: Spon Press.
Duany, A., & Plater-Zyberk, E. (2002). The Lexicon of New Urbanism. Version 3.2, Miami: DPZ & Co.
Duncan, A. (2010). Landscape Urbanism: An Annotated Bibliography. Unpublished Dissertation, PhD Candidate, Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning, Portland State University, 1-2.
Easterling, K. (2003). Error in Landscape Urbanism. A Manual for the Machinic Landscape, M. Mostafavi and C. Najle (Eds); London: Architectural Association, 154.
Faizi, M. (2010). Urbanscape, Comparative Study of Three Concepts in the City. Manzar, 2(9), 36-37.
Faizi, M., & Razzaghiasl, S. (2008). Landscape Urbanism: A New Approach in Landscape Architecture & Urban Design.
Gehl, J. (2002). Public Spaces and Public Life. Adelaide: Adelaide City Council Press.
Gray, C. (2005). From Emergence to Divergence: Modes of Landscape Urbanism. Unpublished Master Thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Hillier, B. (2004). Designing Safer Streets: An Evidence-Based Approach. Planning in London, 48, 45-49.
Hillier, B. (2007). Space is the Machine, A Configurational Theory of Architecture. Space Syntax.
Hillier, B., & Hanson, J. (1984). The Social Logic of Space. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hillier, B., Penn, A., Hanson, J., Grajews ki, T., & Xu, J. (1993). Natural Movement: Or, Configuration and Attraction in Urban Pedestrian Movement. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 20, 29-66.
Katz, P. (1994). The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
Krier, R. (1996). Stadtraum in Theorie und Praxis. (Kh. Hasheminejad, Trans.). Tehran: Jahad Daneshgahi Co.
Lang, J. (2004). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. (A. Einifar, Trans.). Tehran: Tehran University Co.
Lindholm, G. (2008). Landscape Urbanism – Large-Scale Architecture, Ecological Urban Planning or a Designerly Research Policy. Accepted Paper for NAAR Annual Symposium, Gothenburg.
Lindholm, G. (2011). Visible gestures: On Urban Landscape Perspectives in Planning. Planning Theory, 11(1), 5-19.
Lynch, K. (2002). The Image of the City. (M. Mozayeni, Trans.). Tehran: Tehran University Co.
Mossop, E. (2006). Landscape of Infrastructure. The Landscape Urbanism Reader, Charles Waldheim, (Ed); New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
Mostafavi, M., & Doherty, G. (Eds), (2010). Ecological Urbanism. Basel: Lars Müller Publishers, 17-50.
Motloch, J. (2002). Introduction to Landscape Design. Tehran: Parks & Green Space Organization of Tehran.
Parolek, D., Parolek, K., & Crawford, P. (2008). Form-Based CODES: a Guide for Planners, Urban Designers, Municipalities, and Developeres. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Plater-Zyberk, E., & Donnelly B. (2010). New Urbanism. Encyclopedia of Urban Studies, Ray Hutchison, (Ed); Sage Publication.
Reed, C. (2006). Public Works Practice. The Landscape Urbanism Reader, Charles Waldheim, (Ed), New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 280.
Rossi, A. (1982). The Architecture of the City. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Sitte, C. (2006). City Planning According to Artistic Principles. (F. Gharib, Trans.). Tehran: Tehran University Co.
Spirn, A.W. (2011). Ecological Urbanism. Companion to Urban Design, Tridib Banerjee and Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris (Ed); UK: Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Steiner, F. (2011). Landscape Ecological Urbanism: Origins and Trajectories. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100(4), 333-337.
Tibbalds, F. (1992). Making People-Friendly Towns: Improving the Public Environment in Towns and Cities. Spon Press.
Trancik, R. (1986). Finding Lost Spaces: Theories of Urban Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Waldheim, Ch. (2006). Landscape as Urbanism. The Landscape Urbanism Reader, Charles Waldheim, (Ed); New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 38.
Weller, R. (2006). An Art of Instrumentality: Thinking Through Landscape Urbanism. The Landscape Urbanism Reader, Charles Waldheim, (Ed); New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 44.