سنجش تطبیقی اثرات فرم کالبدی محله‌های شهری بر سرمایه اجتماعی میان ساکنین، مورد مطالعاتی: شهر قزوین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده شهرسازی و معماری، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

2 استاد طراحی شهری و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران و هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

شهر از دیرباز پویایی اجتماعی خود را در گرو فضاها و مکان‌های خود، یافته است. از یک‌سو تعاملات و روابط انسانی در کالبد شهر شکل‌گرفته و از سوی دیگر کالبد، هویت خود را از حیات اجتماعی موجود باز می‌یابد. به میزانی که یک شهر بتواند با شهروندان خود از طریق ویژگی‌های کالبدی ارتباط ایجاد کند؛ در هویت اجتماعی آنان تأثیرگذار خواهد بود. از این رو فرم شهر می‌تواند تأثیر قابل‌توجهی بر رفتار و سرمایه اجتماعی میان انسان‌ها داشته باشد. به فراخور ابعاد مختلف فرم کالبدی محله‌های شهر، سطح تأثیرپذیری و گونه ارتباط انسان با آن‌ها متفاوت بوده و درنتیجه میزان، شدت و نوع تعاملات جاری در فضاهای مختلف یکسان نخواهد بود. شهر قزوین با قدمتی طولانی و تحولات گوناگون بستر شکل‌گیری محله‌های متفاوت بوده است. به‌نظر می‌رسد تمایزات میان ساختار کالبدی این محله‌ها منجر‌به تغییر در ظرفیت‌های اجتماعی موجود شده باشد. در پژوهش حاضر سعی شده ضمن مطالعه ادبیات مرتبط با سرمایه اجتماعی و بررسی فرم شهری، ارتباط معنایی این دو مفهوم در قالب چارچوب تئوریک تحقیق تدوین شود؛ سپس بر مبنای شاخص‌های استخراج شده از ادبیات تحقیق، میزان تأثیرگذاری مؤلفه‌های فرم شهری بر سرمایه اجتماعی موجود در محله‌های مختلف شهر قزوین مورد ارزیابی قرار گیرد. نتایج تحقیق بیانگر آنست که بیشترین حد سرمایه اجتماعی در میان محله‌های با ویژگی‌های همساز با ماهیت بافت نیمه‌ارگانیک شکل گرفته است. هچنین در حالی‌که میان شاخص‌های کالبدی و سرمایه اجتماعی ارتباط معناداری وجود دارد ولی ضریب و شدت تأثیر این عوامل یکسان نیست. به طوری‌که عواملی که ارتباط مستقیمی را با نفوذپذیری و کاربری‌ها دارند اهمیت بیشتری را در شکل‌دهی به سرمایه اجتماعی در این محله‌ها دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Impact Assessment of Physical Form on Social Capital among Residents of Urban Neighborhoods, Case Study: Qazvin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fateme Shakibaei Bidaruni 1
  • Manuchehr Tabibian 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Urban Planning, Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University of Qazvin, Qazvin, Iran
2 Full Professor of Urban Planning, School of Urban Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran and Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The urban sociability depends on its own spaces and places. On one hand, social interactions and human relations are created in the urban physical environment; and on the other hand urban environment gains its identity from this social life. This issue is continuously being repeated in the urban civic evolution and development process. Social presence and activity of the individuals in urban space is not separated from built environment and there is a two-way relationship with it; as more the urban could create a symbolic communication with citizens through the physical features; it would be more effective in shaping the social identity. The diverse patterns of urban form and structure leads to have different implications for interpersonal relationships. Social capital is one of the important factors of social behavior in urban communities which is inextricably intertwined with physical features. Among many factors that have influenced in shaping the urban, physical form seems to have the most significant impact on the social behavior of human beings as well as the social capital formed among them. According to the different aspects of physical forms in spaces and neighborhoods, the human’s relationship would be different. Therefore, the intensity and type of interactions would not be the same in diverse spaces. A good understandnig of the urban form and development patterns and assessing its impact on social capital of neighborhoods will be very important in the planning process. And it helps the planner to promote social interaction in urban spaces.
The Qazvin city of great antiquity has been the context of various developments within its urban texture. This has led to differences in neighborhoods physical identity. It seems that such differences in the physical structure of the neighborhoods cause changes in the social capacities formed in it. In this research, we first tried to study the literature of social capital and urban form and the semantic relation between them as a theoretical framework. Data were collected from various sources; Based on the parameters extracted from the literature, we analyzed the impacts of the urban form components on social capital in the urban areas. According to Conzen theoritical view three main variables (land use, density and patterns of building and access networks) considered for examining the urban form and neighborhoods were typified by GIS software. Using the questionnaire method, we examined social capital in 15 neighborhood randomly selected samples which were shaped into three different types of urban fabric (organic, semi-organic and non-organic). In order to achieve the final results, Path Analysis has been taken so we analyzed the direct and indirect effects of the physical form indicators as independent variables on neighborhoods social capital as a dependent variable.
Findings indicated that the status of social capital in different neighborhoods is not the same and with alteration in the physical characteristics of built environment, we can see a change in social capital among residents. Based on the statistical results extracted from questionnaires; the social capital in the neighborhoods with nature of semi-organic fabric was in the maximum level. While most of the neighborhoods in the organic fabric were in the middle range, the planned and non-organic ones gain the least amount of social capital. There is a significant correlation between physical indicators and social capital while the impact rate and severity of these factors are not being the same so that the factors, related directly to the permeability and land use, have the most important role in shaping the social capital in the neighborhoods while the occupation level and block size have the least. Indicators such as the variety of local land uses, the density of public spaces, the ratio of public utilities to the residential area and the ratio of network access to the neighborhood area have the most important and statistical relevance with social capital.
According to the comparative assessment between urban form dimensions and social capital, although the social capital trend is compatible with the land use changes; this adaptability will be limited to a certain amount in relation to the two other components (access and pattern of construction). Existence the optimal level of these physical features in semi-organic neighborhoods has a significant impact on the promotion of social capital and human relationships improvement.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Form
  • Social Interaction
  • Urban Neighborhoods
  • Social Capital

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