Strategic City Branding; from Theory to Practice

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 M.A. of Urban Planning, School of Environmental Design & Architecture, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Candidate in Urbanism, Nazar Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده

Cities are in search for new ways to get promoted. Regarding the fast changes in technology
and the shift from local to a globalized environment, cities are forced to compete with each other in order
to become an attractive tourist destination, workplace, cultural rich place and much more. City branding
has been introduced as a new and creative solution to be adopted by cities to achieve success in this hard
competition. Although the promotion of cities dates back to the 19th century, the emergence of concepts
such as place marketing, place branding, and city branding is relatively new in the academic language.
City branding is not only a promotional activity but also it should be considered as a strategic process.
So, city branding should be a vision-driven process in order to be successful. But unfortunately, there is a
gap in strategic city branding literature from the practical point of view. This study focuses on filling this
gap by reviewing the evolution of city branding from city marketing, identifying the relations between
city branding and strategic spatial planning and then examining the lessons learned in the case study of
Damavand city near Tehran. Thus, Damavand strategic city branding process is explained step by step in
this article, as to create an applicable framework for other Iranian cities like Damavand which have great
branding potentials. This strategic process led to identifying Damavand’s branding vision as “A Mythical
Paradise”, and also proposing 42 different city branding plans for Damavand

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Strategic City Branding; from Theory to Practice

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Mirmoini 1
  • Abbas Azari 2
1 M.A. of Urban Planning, School of Environmental Design & Architecture, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Candidate in Urbanism, Nazar Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Cities are in search for new ways to get promoted. Regarding the fast changes in technology
and the shift from local to a globalized environment, cities are forced to compete with each other in order
to become an attractive tourist destination, workplace, cultural rich place and much more. City branding
has been introduced as a new and creative solution to be adopted by cities to achieve success in this hard
competition. Although the promotion of cities dates back to the 19th century, the emergence of concepts
such as place marketing, place branding, and city branding is relatively new in the academic language.
City branding is not only a promotional activity but also it should be considered as a strategic process.
So, city branding should be a vision-driven process in order to be successful. But unfortunately, there is a
gap in strategic city branding literature from the practical point of view. This study focuses on filling this
gap by reviewing the evolution of city branding from city marketing, identifying the relations between
city branding and strategic spatial planning and then examining the lessons learned in the case study of
Damavand city near Tehran. Thus, Damavand strategic city branding process is explained step by step in
this article, as to create an applicable framework for other Iranian cities like Damavand which have great
branding potentials. This strategic process led to identifying Damavand’s branding vision as “A Mythical
Paradise”, and also proposing 42 different city branding plans for Damavand

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • City Branding
  • Strategic Planning
  • Damavand City
  • City Image
  • City Marketing

Anholt, S. (2006). How the World Views Its Cities.

The Anholt City Brands Index, 2nd Edition.

Ashworth, G., & Voogd, H. (1990). Selling the City:

Marketing Approaches in Public Sector Urban Planning.

London: Belhaven Press.

Ashworth, G., & Voogd, H. (1994). Marketing and

Place Promotion. In: J. Gold and S. Ward (Eds.) Place

Promotion, the Use of Publicity and Marketing to Sell

Towns and Regions. Chi Chester, UK: John Wiley.

Ashworth, G.J. (2009). The Instruments of Place

Branding: How Is It Done? European Spatial Research

and Policy, 16(1), 9-22.

Berg, L.van Den., & Braun, E. (1999). Urban

Competitiveness, Marketing and the Need for Organizing

Capacity. Urban Studies, 36(5–6), 987–999.

Braun, E. (2008). City Marketing: Towards an

Integrated Approach. ERIM Ph.D. Series Research in

Management. Erasmus Research Institute of Management.

Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/13694,

accessed February 2018.

Burdett, R., & Sudjic, D. (2007). The Endless City:

The Urban Age Project by London School of Economics

and Deutsche Bank’s Alfled Herrhausen Society. Phaidon,

London.

Chernatony, L.D. (2010). From Brand Vision to

Brand Evaluation; The Strategic Process of Growing

and Strengthening Brands. Elsevier Publication, Third

edition.

De Noni, I., Orsi, L., & Zanderighi, L. (2014).

Attributes of Milan Influencing City Brand Attractiveness.

Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 3(4),

218-226, Elsevier Publications.

Florida, R. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class:

and How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community

and Everyday Life. Basic Books, NY.

Gómeza, M., Fernándeza, A.C., Molinaa, A., &

Arand, E. (2018). City Branding in European Capitals:

An Analysis from the Visitor Perspective. Journal of

Destination Marketing & Management, 7, 190- 201.

Hildreth, J. (2008). The European City Brand

Barometer – Revealing which Cities Get the Brands they

Deserve. Saffron Brand Consultants.

Hultman, M., Yeboah-Banin, A.A., & Formaniuk,

L. (2016). Demand- and Supply-side Perspectives of

City Branding: A Qualitative Investigation. Journal of

Business Research, 69(11), 5153-5157.

Javisalo, S. (2012). How to Build Successful City

Brands?. Case Munich, Berlin & Hamburg, Thesis for

Degree of Hotel and Restaurants Management, University

of Applied Science, HAAGA-HELIA.

Kavaratzis, M. (2004). From City Marketing to

City Branding: Towards a Theoretical Framework for

Developing City Brands. Place Branding, 1(1), 58–73.

Kavaratzis, M. (2005). Branding the City through

Culture and Entertainment. AESOP 05, Vienna, 2005.

Kavaratzis, M. (2007). City Marketing: The Past,

the Present and Some Unresolved Issues. Geography

Compass, 1(3), 695–712.

Kavaratzis, M. (2012). From ‘Necessary Evil’ to

Necessity: Stakeholders’ Involvement in Place Branding.

Journal of Place Management and Development, 5(1),

7–19.

Kavaratzis, M., & Ashworth, G. (eds.) (2010). Place

Branding: where do We Stand? In: Towards Effective

Place Brand Management-branding European Cities and

Regions. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Kavaratzis, M., & Ashworth, G.J. (2005). City

Branding: An Effective Assertion of Identity or

a Transitory Marketing Trick?. Tijdschrift Voor

Economische En Sociale Geografie, 96(5), 506–514.

Kotler, P., & Gertner, D. (2002). Country as a Brand,

Products and Beyond: A Place Marketing and Brand

Management Perspective. Journal of Brand Management,

9(4), 249–261.

Kotler, P., Asplund, C., Rein, I., & Haider, D. (1999).

Marketing Places Europe: Attracting Investments,

Industries and Visitors to European Cities, Communities,

Regions and Nations. London: Pearson Education.

Kotler, P., Haider, D., & Rein, I. (1993). Marketing

Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to

Cities, States and Nations. New York: The Free Press.

Landry, C. (2000). The Creative City: A Toolkit for

Urban Innovators. Comedia, London.

Lee, C.J. (2013). Effects of Sport Mega-events on

City Brand Awareness and Image. Using the 2009 World

Games in Kaohsiung as an Example, Quality & Quantity,

Springer Publications.

Lucarelli, A., & Berg, P. (2011). City Branding: A

State-of-the Art Review of the Research Domain. Journal

of Place Management and Development, 4(1), 9–27.

Mathieu, C. (2005). The Brand as Leader. Marketing

Magazine, 110(2), 13-14.

Mirmoini, M., Mohammadi, SH., Aleyasin, H.,

Farazmand, R., & Mallaki, T. (2016). Damavand Strategic

Planning. In R., Kheyroddin, (Ed.), Comparative Study

of Spatial Evolution in Eastern Settlements of Tehran

and Paris Metropolitan Area, IUST, Tehran, Iran, Paydar

Publications.

Moghadam, F. (2014). Brand and Urban Economics.

Quarterly Journal of Economic and Social Research, 26.

Moilanen, T. (2015). Challenges of City Branding:

A Comparative Study of 10 European Cities. Place

Branding and Public Diplomacy, 11(3), 216-225.

Okano, H., & Samson, D. (2010). Cultural Urban

Branding and Creative Cities: A Theatrical Framework

for Promoting Creativity in the Public Spaces.

Oliveira, E. (2014). Place Branding as a Strategic

Spatial Planning Instrument. Place Branding and Public

Diplomacy, 11(1), 18-33.

Oliveira, E. (2016). Place Branding in Strategic

Spatial Planning: An Analysis at the Regional Scale with

Special Reference to Northern Portugal [Groningen]:

University of Groningen.

Paschou, E. (2013). City Branding of Stockholm.

Master Thesis in European Regional Development

Studies, Department of Planning and Regional

Development, School of Engineering, University of

Thessaly.

Prilenska, V. (2012). City Branding as a Tool for

Urban Regeneration: Towards a Theoretical Framework.

Architecture and Urban Planning, 6, 12-16.

Prophet Consultancy. (2006). CEOs for Cities.

Branding Your City, a Guidebook for City Leaders.

Sadeghi Moghaddam, M.R., Assadollahzadeh,

T., Mirmoini, M., & Azimi, S. (2013). Examining the

City Brand Theory and Presenting Some Solutions

for Implementing of It in Iran. Civil Engineering and

Architecture, 1(4), 120-124.

Sadeghi Moghaddam, M.R., Assadollahzadeh, T.,

Mirmoini, M., & Azimi, S. (2014). Examining the Role

of City Brand in Introducing Iranian Cities to the World.

Universal Journal of Management, 2(2), 92-99.

Sheng, L. (2012). Rethinking the Impacts of Foreign

Investors on Urban Development: The City of Macao.The

Annals of Regional Science, 49(1), 73-86.

Sinaee, S.A. (2013). City Branding an Economic

Catalyst for Metropolitans. Quarterly Journal of

Economic Research and Analysis, 26.

Smyth, H. (2005). Marketing the City; The Role of

Flagship Developments in Urban Regeneration. Taylor &

Francis E-library.

Tataroglu, N., Karatas, A., & Erboy, N. (2015). An

Evaluation on the Process of Being a Brand City of

Muğla, Procedia. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 210,

114 – 125.

Van Assche, K., & Lo, M. (2011). Planning,

Preservation and Place Branding: A Tale of Sharing Assets

and Narratives. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy,

7(2), 116–126.

Vanob, A. (2015). The Image of the Creative City,

Eight Years Later: Turin, Urban Branding and the

Economic Crisis Taboo, Cities, 46, 1-7.

Vicari Haddock, S. (ed.) (2010). Branding the

Creative City. In: Brand-Building: The Creative City.

Florence: Firenze University Press.

Vonolo, A. (2008). The Image of the Creative City:

Some Reflections on Urban Branding in Turin, Cities, 25,

370- 382.

Warnaby, G., Bennison, D., & Davies, J.B. (2005).

Marketing Town Centers: Retailing and Town Center

Management. Local Economy, 20(2), 183–204.

Zenker, S., & Beckmann, S.C. (2013). Measuring

Brand Image Effects of Flagship Projects for Place

Brands: The Case of Hamburg. Journal of Brand

Management, 20(8), 642–655.

Zenker, S., & Erfgen, S.Z.C. (2014). Let Them Do the

Work: A Participatory Place Branding Approach. Journal

of Place Management and Development, 7(3), 225–234.

Zenker, S., & Rütter, N. (2014). Is Satisfaction the

Key? The Role of Citizen Satisfaction, Place Attachment

and Place Brand Attitude on Positive Citizenship

Behavior. Cities, 38, 11–17.

Zhang, L., & Zhao, S. (2009). City Branding and the

Olympic Effect: A Case Study of Beijing. Cities, 26(5),

245–254.

Zhao, Y. (2015). ‘China’s Leading Historical and

Cultural City: Branding Dali City through Public-private

Partnership in Bai Architecture Revitalization, Cities, 49,

106- 112.