بازنمود تأثیر هندسه بر حیات‌پذیری فضاهای معماری، مورد مطالعاتی: فرهنگ‌سراها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی قزوین، قزوین، ایران.

2 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

از آنجایی‌که هندسه می‌تواند بر کیفیت و چگونگی درک معنا و مفهوم بنا تأثیرگذار باشد، هدف از تحقیق حاضر، بررسی معیارهای تأثیرگذار هندسی معماری جهت ارتقاء مفهوم حیات‌پذیری و انتقال حس سرزندگی به کاربران است. از این‌رو، در این تحقیق بناهای فرهنگی با محوریت فرهنگ‌سراها به‌عنوان یکی از مراکز فرهنگی- اجتماعی مهم برای حیات جمعی در دوران معاصر انتخاب ‌شده‌اند. عبارت «ویژگی‌های هندسی در حیات‌پذیری فرهنگ‌سراها مؤثر است»، فرضیه این تحقیق بوده و جهت بررسی آن، روش تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی و ابزار پیمایشی غیرمستقیم مبتنی بر نظر خبرگان انتخاب شده‌است. مجموعه‌ای از شاخص‌ها برای تبیین مفهوم حیات‌پذیری و همچنین ارزیابی ویژگی‌های هندسی یک بنا مبتنی بر ادبیات موضوع، مبنای تدوین پرسش‌نامه‌ بوده است که عبارت‌اند از: مرکزیت، تناسبات متفاوت، حفظ سلسله‌مراتب، فرم‌ها و زمینه‌ کامل، ساده و قابل‌درک، تعادل، انسجام و پیوستگی اجزاء، وجود نشانه‌ها برای تمایز، انطباق با نوعی بی‌نظمی درون‌زا، زایش تشابه‌ها و تعادلی پویا بین فضاهای مثبت و منفی. براساس نتایج ارائه‌شده در ادبیات موضوع و نظرات خبرگان، چگونگی تأثیر هندسه بر حیات‌پذیری معماری در انواع معنوی، مادی و ادراکی- معنایی در این تحقیق ارزیابی‌شده و در نهایت فرضیه پژوهش تأیید شده‌است. نتایج تحقیق، حاکی از تأثیرگذاری هندسه معقول و محسوس (هندسه حیات‌بخش) بر القای حس حیات در بنای فرهنگ‌سراهای مورد بررسی است. رتبه‌بندی نهایی هر یک از شاخص‌های هندسی تأثیرگذار بر حیات‌پذیری فرهنگ‌سراها بررسی و تحلیل همبستگی و ارتباط آن‌ها با یکدیگر نیز ارائه شده‌است. نتایج همبستگی تحلیل‌شده نشان می‌دهد که ارتقای هر یک از معیارهای هندسی می‌تواند بر ارتقای معیارهای همبسته بر آن تأثیر گذاشته و در نهایت ارتقای هر دو منجر ‌به بهبود وضعیت حیات‌پذیری در معماری فرهنگ‌سراها شود. به‌طور خلاصه یافته‌های تحقیق مبتنی بر تحلیل‌های آماری حاکی از اهمیت بالای معیارهای هندسی تناسبات متفاوت، زایش تشابه‌ها، حفظ سلسله‌مراتب و زمینه کامل و ساده در میان دیگر معیارها با هدف ارتقای حیات معماری نمونه‌های موردی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Influence of Geometry on the Vitality of Architecture, Case Study: Cultural Centers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maliheh Javidmehr 1
  • Parisa Hashempour 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Imam Khomeini International University Qazvin, Qazvin, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, architectural spaces are engaged in a kind of semantic crisis, with major causes, including encountering with architecture without a spirit and a sense of invitation. This process leads to changes in the vitality of architecture in the contemporary era. Due to the key role of the geometric features in understanding concepts of architecture, the main goal of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the geometric features of perception of the architecture vitality via considering case studies of some of Tehran cultural centers. The main hypothesis of this paper is that the geometric features have significant impacts on the vitality of architecture. The mentioned hypotheses are evaluated via using a descriptive-analytical research method and a questionnaire survey tool in order to get data from the respondents. A comprehensive collection of assessment criteria is considered in this research, including centrality, different proportions, preserve of hierarchy, simple, complete and understandable concepts, equilibrium, cohesion between design components, distinguishable signs, compliance with an endogenous disorder, birth of similarities, and dynamic balance between positive and negative spaces. Centrality, the main structure is the central part and the other sections follow it. In different proportions, different parts are created at specific levels with a balanced and varied scale depending on the various applications of space. In preserve of the hierarchy, the components must have different hierarchies in various aspects such as motion, dimensions, form, and so on. This diversity reminds a kind of vitality. In simple, complete and understandable concepts, the elements of each component are constituted of simple and complete forms. Therefore, inconspicuous background space is not achieved. In addition, the useless and shapeless space of background is not created. In equilibrium, asymmetry means life and survival. The perfect symmetry could be considered as dead. In cohesion between design components, the inseparability of one component from its surrounding environment components is one of the signs of life and a kind of natural growth of objects. In signs to distinguish, there will be life if there are extensive diversity in form, design, and other similar items. In this situation, the component is unique and its easy diagnosis is possible. In compliance with an endogenous disorder, the adaptation of the building with the disorder of the environment around it is indicative of natural birth and its survival. However, the regular buildings have a kind of inner mourning. In the birth of similarities, the components of any living phenomenon are inherent in their internal similarity. This phenomenon causes their continuity and integrity as it indicates the belonging of that component to the overall set. In the dynamic balance between positive and negative spaces, the existence of spaces to create quiet and silent surroundings with interactive and cumulative spaces and other similar objects will ensure a deep and viable balance to meet the various needs. Based on the obtained results, the investigated hypothesis is confirmed via using statistical analysis methods. The Javan and Niavaran cultural centers in Tehran in accordance to the considered research scope are assessed in this study. The main results based on the statistical correlation analysis indicate that the position and significance of reasonable geometric criteria are clearly observed among the geometric measures affecting life. The research results indicate that there is a significant impact of the reasonable and sensible geometry in the perception of a sense of architecture vitality of understudied cultural centers. In addition, the results of the research indicate the superiority of Niavaran Cultural Center in terms of architectural viability over Javan cultural center which is more influenced by reasonable geometric criteria.
It is suggested that the geometric criteria such as different proportions, similarities, preservation of the hierarchy, and simple, complete and understandable concepts in designing cultural centers should be more considered by designers. In addition, the correlations between the considered geometric criteria are examined statistically. The statistical results illustrate that enhancing each of the considered assessment criteria could have a positive impact on their correlated criteria. Furthermore, improving these assessment criteria could result in enhancing the sense of the vitality of the cultural centers. The obtained results show the superiority of some of the geometric criteria to others in term of positive impact in the sense of architecture vitality such as different proportions, the birth of similarities, preserve of the hierarchy, and simple, complete and understandable concepts. Therefore, designers should consider the most important issues in designing a cultural center with the aim of achieving maximum viability such as diversity in size and dimension of spaces, dissimilarity of spaces, maintaining a common spirit in the design of the various spaces, existence of rational system for allocating space next to each other and determining their access structure, Simplicity in the design and readability of spaces and the optimal use of all spaces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vitality
  • Sensible Geometry
  • Reasonable Geometry
  • Cultural Center

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