گونه‌شناسی خانه‌های سنتی اراک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، گروه معماری، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

2 استادیار گروه معماری، واحد همدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، همدان، ایران.

3 مربی گروه معماری، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران.

چکیده

سرعت تغییر در بافت قدیم شهرها ما را در رویارویی با نحوه نگرش و چگونگی برخورد با آن‌ها قرار می‌دهد. صرف نظر از برشمردن جنبه‌های مثبت یا منفی تحولات کالبدی که به دیدگاه‌های برنامه‌ریزان و سیاست‌های اتخاذ شده آن وابسته است. لزوم ثبت و ضبط الگوهای معماری پیشین مسجل می‌باشد. چالش اساسی در این رویارویی این است که آیا بناهای قدیم شهر اراک قابلیت دسته‌بندی و گونه‌شناسی را داراست؛ و چند گونه اصلی را برای شناسایی بناهای این بافت می‌توان برشمرد. این پژوهش با روشی توصیفی به شرح کلی شمای معماری پرداخته و عرصه‌بندی در معماری مسکونی بافت قدیم، جهت‌گیری عمومی بناهای مسکونی، عناصر عمومی بناهای مسکونی، عناصر کالبدی و اجزای آن به تفکیک نام و کاربرد آن‌ها در خانه‌های قدیمی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در نتیجه این پژوهش که تحقیقی توصیقی- تاریخی و ترکیبی است، به گونه‌شناسی و تفکیک انواع عمده الگوهای معماری مسکونی در بافت قدیم انجامید و در پایان، سه گونه اصلی، گونه کوهستانی، گونه کویری، گونه برون‌گرا در خانه‌های اراک معرفی شد که گونه کوهستانی برگرفته از معماری اقلیم سرد و خشک ایران مثل همدان، کردستان و غیره، گونه کویری بر‌گرفته از معماری شهرهای کویری ایران مثل یزد و کاشان و گونه برون‌گرا که در دوره پهلوی به‌وجود آمده برگرفته از معماری معمول دوره پهلوی ایران است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Typology of Traditional Houses in Arak

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Hosseini 1
  • Manouchehr Foroutan 2
  • Saied Salehi 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran.
3 Instructor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The fast pace of changes in the old urban fabrics accentuates the way we approach and deal with these fabrics, regardless of the positive or negative aspects of the physical changes that depend on the views of the planners and the policies adopted. It is necessary to document and record the previous architectural patterns. The main challenge in this confrontation is whether the old buildings of the city of Arak have the ability to be categorized in a typology, and how to recognize the main types of identified structures in this fabric.
This research, with a descriptive approach, elucidates the architectural theme and zoning in the historic urban fabric, and focuses on the general orientation of residential buildings, the generic elements of the building, its physical elements and its components, and their applications in the old houses. As a result, this descriptive–historical study, in which a combination of methods was used, led to recognition of residential typology and understanding of major types of residential architecture patterns in the old context. Finally, three main types were introduced in the houses of Arak.
Given the developments in the last century, historic houses are severely subject to destruction, while the majority of residential areas in Iran are located in historic urban fabrics. Studies show that there has not been much research conducted on these houses and there is no comprehensive understanding of them, while emphasizing on the basic needs of the Iranian people and their environment can lead us to the appropriate housing pattern for Iranians.
The city of Arak has been considered majorly from an industrial and commercial point of view. In this regard, the architecture and urbanization of Arak have been neglected and its developments have been neglected. Except for a few cases that have generally addressed the subject, this idea has not been previously researched. On the other hand, the houses of Arak are suitable models for understanding the development of Arak architecture due to their dispersion in the city and belonging to different time periods. For this purpose, in this research, the typology of traditional houses in Arak has been studied.
Studies show that there are different definitions and methods for typology. Therefore, after studying the shape, climate, cultural, and structure of materials, the historical typology of Qajar houses in Arak is discussed.
Three house types have been identified by surveys carried out on Arak houses:
- Type A (Mountainous Type)
- Type B (Desert Type)
- Type C (Extrovert Type)
The mountainous type is derived from the architecture style of cold and dry climate of Iran such as Hamedan, Kurdistan, and so on. In this type, the shape of the plan is compact with one or two sides; it is asymmetric, with two floors most often and an average occupancy level with a large number of rooms.
The desert type is based on the architecture of Iranian desert cities such as Yazd and Kashan. In this type, two other subcategories are also observed. The first subcategory (B1) is very similar to the houses of the hot and dry climate of Iran with a central courtyard. Mostly the central courtyard has three or four sides and is symmetrical, with mostly two floors and a medium occupancy level with a large number of rooms.
The second subcategory (B2) is more closely related to desert type in terms of spatial organization and is generally different from the central courtyard houses. In terms of the shape of a plan, it has two or three sides, and is asymmetric, most often with two floors and an average occupancy level with a small number of rooms.
The extrovert type, which originated in Pahlavi period, is derived from the typical Persian Pahlavi architecture of Iran. This type has been created outside the fabric of the castle. In terms of shape, they have extrovert plans; it has an asymmetrical structure, mostly with two floors and with a low occupancy level with a large number of rooms.
On the other hand, over time, the spatial organization of houses has changed from Qajar period to Pahlavi era:
- The houses have become more extrovert and the central courtyards have become fewer.
- There is less symmetry in Pahlavi houses.
- The vast majority of houses in the old city (castle of Sultan Abad) have a central courtyard, but this pattern is lost once the city was expanded outside the castle. Overall, in houses outside the fabric, the area of the yard is larger than the houses inside the fabric.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Typology
  • House
  • Architectural Space
  • Arak

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