بررسی اجتماع‌پذیری و کیفیت قرارگاه‌های رفتاری در پارک‌های درون دانشگاهی، مورد مطالعاتی: پارک دانشگاه علم‌وصنعت ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم‌وصنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم وصنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مطابق داده‌های جدید روان‌شناسی محیط، یکی از مهم‌ترین ارزش‌های محیطی، میزان اجتماع‌پذیری و کیفیت قرارگاه‌های رفتاری است و با سنجش آن‌ها می‌توان، موفقیت طرح‌های محیطی و معماری را بررسی کرد. هدف از این پژوهش سنجش شاخصه‌های مطلوب برای شکل‌گیری قرارگاه‌های رفتاری و به تبع آن اجتماع‌پذیری فضا در پارک‌های دانشگاهی است. این تحقیق به بررسی این مقوله در پارک دانشگاه علم‌وصنعت ایران در تهران به‌عنوان قدیمی‌ترین پارک درون دانشگاهی ایران، می‌پردازد. به این منظور در در ابتدا بر مبنای ادبیات روانشناسی محیط، مقوله اجتماع‌پذیری و قرارگاه رفتاری تدقیق شده و مؤلفه‌های اصلی و مؤثر بر شکل‌گیری این دو عامل مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. شاخصه‌های تأثیر‌گذار در افزایش اجتماع‌پذیری محیط شامل حضور طبیعت و درختان؛ وجود نشانه‌ها مانند تابلوهای اطلاع‌رسانی و اعلامیه‌ها و غیره، وجود خدمات جانبی و وجود آب در فضای کالبدی؛ اندازه فضا و محدود نبودن آن مانند گستردگی دید؛ چگالی پایین فضا مانند خلوتی جان فضا و ایجاد فضای خلوت برای دید، دور بودن قلمروها از نوار حرکتی می‌باشند. بعد از برآورد جامعه آماری و حجم نمونه، این مؤلفه‌ها از طریق مصاحبه ساختار‌یافته و پرسش‌نامه به شکل تصادفی از ۶۸ نفر از کاربران پارک دانشگاه مورد پرسش واقع شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها علاوه بر روش‌های آمار توصیفی،‌ از روش آمار استنباطی شامل تحلیل همبستگی در نمونه موردی استفاده شد. نتایج بازخورد کاربران، وجود شاخصه‌های اجتماع‌پذیری مؤثری، همچون وجود آب، مبلمان نیمه‌ثابت و غیره را تأیید کرد. در عین حال موانعی همچون چگالی بیش از حد فضا و انبوه بودن درختان، توسعه دانشگاه به دور از پارک مرکزی و عدم وجود کاربری‌های عمومی در اطراف پارک، اجتماع‌پذیری آن را محدود نموده‌اند.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Social Acceptance and Quality of Behavioral Settings in University Parks, Case Study: Iran University of Science and Technology Park

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Hamzenejad 1
  • Pedram Ghelichy Ghelichy 2
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
2 M.A. of Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Based on the latest studies on the environmental psychology, ‘social acceptance’ and ‘behavior setting qualities’ are considered as the most important parts of environmental value. The quality of design regarding the environmental value can be evaluated by quantitative and analytical methods. The objective of the current study is to assess desirable measures regarding the ‘Social values’ in the open spaces in university.
The statistical population of this study is the Operators of the University of Science and Technology Park on a business day and includes student groups and administrative staff and university lecturers. The statistical population of this research is a small society, therefore, its volume is estimated using the limited population sampling formula. Indicators that affect the increasing social sensitivity of the environment are: the presence of nature and trees in the environment, the presence of signs in space, including: information boards and leaflets, the presence of peripheral services in the natural environment, the presence of water in the physical space, The size of space and its limitlessness: the visibility, the low density of space: the quietness of space and the creation of a quiet environment for viewing, the remoteness of the realms from the movement axes. In order to do the research, firstly, based on the psychology of environment literature, the category of sociality and behavioral camp were determined and the main and effective components on the formation of these two factors were studied. After estimating the statistical society and sample size, these components were questioned through a structured interview and a random questionnaire from 68 university park users. The method of data collection in this research is a structured interview. Questions were asked in the form of four questionnaires and descriptions of the users. For analyzing the data, in addition to the descriptive statistics, inferential statistics including correlation analysis of case study was used. Validation of the questions in this research (validity and reliability) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient a = 0.954 indicates the validity of the test and its questions. In order to investigate the societal and behavioral structure of the University of Science and Technology, firstly, the effective indicators, by examining previous research were achieved. These indicators were measured in the form of structured interviews in the architectural space. It was controlled in measuring some factors that caused changes in results and data. In examining these variables, the relationships between the indexes were determined after the analysis with Excel software. In this way, the rate of performance and performance of the desired components of socialization was determined from the students’ point of view. Data was analyzed by descriptive and interpretive method, and because of the generalized generalizability, the characteristics derived from previous studies regarding the behavioral and social space of students were questioned. These indicators are known as first-factor factors. According to the data, some of these indicators in the University of Science and Technology Park are not desirable, and some others do not have enough returns in this space. From the viewpoint of the students, the environment and the quality of green space and the presence of water in the environment are quite desirable, while some other characteristics, such as the remoteness of the realms of to the traffic places, or the size of space and semi-fixed furniture is relatively well-considered. However, some features such as space density, the presence of services near the park, especially the treadmill, as well as the presence of scientific signs and signs have not been effective.
This research focuses on the Iran University of Science and Technology main park as the oldest one in Iran. Having used a quantitative method, the current research evaluated the above mentioned measures by distributing a designed questionnaire among students. The result confirmed the occurrence of the social measures such as: portable seat, existence of water. On the other hand, limitation of social interaction in the park stems from obstacles likewise the high density trees, accessibility issues to the park and lack of public services.
By identifying these indicators, urban designers can provide the right environment for creating green spaces and parks, and create flexible environments in universities that allow the formation of behavioral settings tailored to the diverse mindsets of student groups and administrative staff and university lecturers. Since everything that happens in universities will occur on a larger scale and in the future in cities, the socialization of spaces in universities and the ability of architects and environmental planners offers the best social model. It will help making a more social city. Therefore, the design of general academic environments is a mode of modeling for community in the city.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • behavior setting
  • Social
  • University Park
  • Pro-Environmental Behavior

Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., & Silverstein, M. (1968). A Pattern Language Which Generates Multi-service Centers: Center for Environmental Structure Berkeley. CA.
Argyle, M., & Dean, J. (1965). Eye-contact, Distance and Affiliation. Sociometry, 289-304.
Bahreini, G., & Eynifar, A.R. (2012). Analyzing the Social Nature of the Physical Environment in the Human Environment. Journal of Fine Arts, 45.
Barker, R.G. (1968). Ecological Psychology: Concepts and Methods for Studying the Environment of Human Behavior: Stanford University Press.
Danesh Doust, M. (2013). Investigating the Effects of Environmental Capacity on the Formation of Behavioral Station; Case Study: Zanjan city Green Field. Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development.
Daneshgar Moghaddam, G. (2012). Article of the Nature Lessons in creating Synchronization of Architectur.Faculty of Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran.
Groot, L.V.D. (2008). Research Methods in Architecture. (A.R. Eynifar,Trans.). Tehran University Press, Tehran.
Hall, E.T., & Petita, A. (1966). The Hidden Dimension. Garden City press.
Lang, J. (1987). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold New York.
Lawson, B. (2007). Language of Space. Routledge. PBShop UK
Mohammad Taghi, I., & Ghaffari Ansab, E. (2013). Generalizability and Challenges in Qualitative Research. Research Journal, 4, 11.
Moleski, W., & Lang, J. (1986). Organizational Goals and Human Needs in Office Planning. Behavioral Issues in Office Design, 16.
Osmond, H. (1957). Function as the Basis of Psychiatric Ward Design. Psychiatric Services, 8(4), 23-27.
Pasalar, C. (2004). The Effects of Spatial Layouts on Students Interactions in Middle Schools: Multiple Case Analysis. Advisors Candy Beal. Committee Member, Frank J. Smith, Committee Member, Henry Sanoff, Committee Chair., Robin Moore, Committee Member. NCSU Libraries.
Pol, E. (2002). The Theoretical Background of the City-identity-sustainability Network. Environment and Behavior, 34(1), 8-25.
Pourdeyhimi, S., & Nouratkhani, A.M. (2014). Identity of House: An Analysis Mechanism of Interaction between the Identity of Residents and the Living Environment. Journal of House and Rural Area, 14, 41.
Rapoport, A. (2013). Human Aspects of Urban Form: Towards a Man Environment Approach to Urban Form and Design. Elsevier.
Salehinia, M. (2010). Analysis of the Effect of Urban Space Architecture on Human Interaction: Case Study: MeaSurement of Architectural Public Societal Spaces. Iran University of Science and Technology.
Wicker, A.W. (2011). Perspectives on Behavior Settings: With Illustrations from Allison’s Ethnography of a Japanese Hostess Club. Environment and Behavior, 47(1), 122-133.