عنوان مقاله [English]
People use wayfinding strategies every day. However, they are not aware of the importance of infrastructure helping them to arrive. wayfinding process involves a series of decisions made by those who are moving in the environment. These decisions are guided by architecture criteria and the elements of space design as well as the signs. All of these factors lead to the conclusion that it is important for people to successfully navigate their way in public buildings and other places. This is because it increases productivity, ease of access, and personal health on the one hand and decreases failure in navigate selection, stress, worry, delay in arrival, and the time spent on the way on the other hand. For navigating in architectural spaces, people use strategies to guide them in the space and help them get to their destinations in the building. The information highlights the importance of this research study: 1. Designing interior spaces to facilitate wayfinding in architecture is a very complex responsibility the basic processes of which are not fully clear yet. 2. Today, due to the lack of a way to design interior spaces which facilitates wayfinding, architecture is greatly dependent on architects. As a result, what is being built today is strongly influenced by fashion and imposed taste. 3. The majority of architects do not care about wayfinding, because they believe it prevents elegant design of space. They think wayfinding problems should be tackled by installing signs on important points.
Achieving the ease of wayfinding in the interior space is a factor that increases readability. This seemingly simple activity provides a serious challenge to architecture design. It is because wayfinding for users of interior space is purposeful and directional behavior. It is a dynamic movement from place of origin to destination and includes the interaction between user and the environment. It is not directly perceived by users and in some cases leads to failure, frustration, or being lost. The interaction between the operator and the environment is studied as a wayfinding strategy with a conceptual structure and is used by people to find their purpose. Considering the fact that this science is new in Iran, the aim of the present paper is to achieve wayfinding strategies.
The present study aims at selecting a case which is public and can be used by all users (and not just a special group of them) and can be permanently used by all people freely (not just at a specific period of time). On the other hand, readability depends on two main variables: 1) The complexity of spatial layout and 2) Prominence and importance of the signs). Complexity of spatial layout occurs in two dimensions and importance of signs occurs in three dimensions. As a result, the case (the National Library of Iran) was selected with an emphasis on these two principles in two stages; the first step: choosing a building among cultural buildings with different cultural functions (cultural center, museum, library, exhibition, and research center) through interviewing professional architects, and the second stage: the final selection of the case with the help of application of space syntax software (Depthmap). Considering the two stages, readability in the National Library of Iran is extremely low compared to other cases.
Qualitative research method was used in this article based on knowledge of the environment and observation of behavior-environmental data of individuals. In the present study, in addition to field notes, video footage and audio recordings of individuals during navigating were used by a video camera as a tool to obtain the required information. Obtaining the data during wayfinding emphasizes on interior architecture. As a result, users use the strategies of reference framework, direct, systematic search, and identification of the destination and route, in chronological order in order to experience the highest number of cases of getting lost to the lowest number. Then, the main points of the interior space were obtained through the process of achieving wayfinding strategies to be used by users to facilitate wayfinding. In strategy of reference framework, users find their position as far as possible with the help of familiar parts of the building such as stairs, elevators, and the point of entry and entrance hall. In direct navigating strategy, straight lines are considered in internal space, which can be matched with the element of edge. In accordance with the definition of a systematic search strategy and design principles, spaces with the same application should be in one area. This increases spatial knowledge of user. With the help of these strategies and discovering what is important to people while navigating, we can obtain the principles of architectural design that increase readability and prevent the confusion of users in complex spaces.
Abu-Obeid, N. (1998). Abstract and Scenographic Imagery: The Effect of Environmental Form on Wayfinding. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 159-173.
Başkaya, A., Wilson, C. & Özcan, Y.Z. (2004). Wayfinding in an Unfamiliar Environment: Different Spatial Settings of Two Polyclinics. Environment and Behavior, 36, 839.
Bitgood, S., Davey, G., Huang, X., & Fung, H. (2013). Pedestrian Choice Behavior at Shopping Mall Intersections in China and the United States. Environment and Behavior, 45(8), 1019-1032.
Braaksma, J.P., & Cook, W.J. (1980). Human Orientation in Transportation Terminals” Transportation. Engineering Journal, 106, 189-203.
Carpman, J., & Grant, M. (2002). Handbook of Environmental Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Chen, J.L., & Stanney, K.M. (2000). A Theoretical Model of Wayfinding in Virtual Environments: Proposed Strategies for Navigational Aiding. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 8(6), 671-685.
Darken, R.P., & Peterson, B. (2002). Spatial Orientation, Wayfinding, and Representation. In K. M. Stanney (Ed.), Human Factors and Ergonomics. Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications. Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Dogu, U., & Erkip, F. (2000). Spatial Factors Affecting Wayfinding and Orientation: A Case Study in a Shopping Mall. Environment and Behavior, 32(6), 731-755.
Downs, R. M. & Stea, D. (1973). Cognitive Maps and Spatial Behavior: Process and Products. In R. M. D. D. Stea (Ed.). Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.
Downs, R.M., & Stea, D. (1977). Maps in Minds: Reflections on Cognitive Mapping. New York: Harper & Row.
Garling, T., & Garling, E. (1988). Distance Minimization in Downtown Pedestrian Shopping. Environment and Planning, 20, 547-554.
Gattis, M. (2001). Spatial Schemas and Abstract Thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Golledge, R. G. (1999). Human Wayfinding and Cognitive Maps. In R. G. Golledge (Ed.), Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes (5–45). Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Herzog, T.R., & Leverich, O.L. (2003). Searching for Legibility. Environment and Behavior, 35, 459, 460.
Hölscher, C., Meilinger, T., Vrachliotis, G., Brösamle, M., & Knauff, M. (2005). Finding the Way Inside: Linking Architectural Design Analysis and Cognitive Processes. Spatial Cognition: Reasoning, Action, Interaction, 4, 1-23.
Jordan, T., Raubal, M., Gartrell, B., & Egenhofer, M. (1998). An Affordance-Based Model of Place in GIS. Paper Presented at the 8th Int. Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Vancouver, Canada.
Klatzky, R., & Lederman, S.J. (2003). Representing Spatial Location and Layout from Sparse Kinesthetic Contacts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29, 310-325.
Koseoglu, E., & Erinsel Onder, D. (2011). Subjective and Objective Dimensions of Spatial Legibility. Paper Presented at the Procedia_Social and Behavior Sciences Besiktas, Istanbul, Turkey.
Lawton, C.A., & Kallai, J. (2002). Gender Differences in Wayfinding Strategies and Anxiety about Wayfinding: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. 47: Sex Roles.
Li, R., & Klippel, A. (2016). Wayfinding behaviors in complex buildings: The impact of environmental legibility and familiarity. Environment and Behavior, 48(3), 482-510.
Loomis, J.M., Klatzky, R.L., Philbeck, J.W., & Golledge, R.G. (1998). Assessing Auditory Distance Perception Using Perceptually Directed Action. Perception & Psychophysics, 60, 966-980.
Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Meilinger, T. (2008). Strategies of Orientation in Environmental Spaces. Max Planck, Berlin.
Murakoshi, S., & Kawai, M. (2000). Use of Knowledge and Heuristics for Wayfinding in an Artificial Environment. Environment and Behavior, 32(6), 756-774.
Neisser, U. (1976). Cognition and Reality: Principles and Implications of Cognitive Psychology. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
O’Neill, M.J. (1992). Effects of Familiarity and Plan Complexity on Wayfinding in Simulated Buildings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, 319-327.
Passini, R. (1992). Wayfinding in Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
Passini, R., Pigot, H., Rainville, C., & Tétreault, M. (2000). Wayfinding in a Nursing Home for Advanced Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type. Environment and Behavior, 32(5), 684-710.
Pazzaglia, F., & De Beni, R. (2001). Strategies of Processing Spatial Information in Survey and Landmark-centred Individuals. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 13, 493-508.
Peponis, J., Zimring, C., & Choi, Y.K. (1990). Finding the Building in Wayfinding. Environment and Behavior, 22, 555-590.
Raubal, M., & Winter, S. (2002). Enriching Wayfinding Instructions with Local Landmarks. Geographic Information Science, 2478, 11.
Raubal, M., Egenhofer, M., Pfoser, D., & Tryfona, N. (1997). Structuring Space with Image Schemata: Wayfinding in Airports as a Case Study. Paper Presented at the Spatial Information Theory - A Theoretical Basis for GIS, International Conference COSIT’97.
Schlender, D., Peters, O.H., & Wienhöfer, M. (2000). The Effect of Maps and Textual Information on Navigation in a Desktop Virtual Environment. Spatial Cognition and Computation, 2, 421-433.
Spence, R. (1999). A Framework for Navigation. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 51, 919-945.
Stea, D. (1974). Architecture in the Head: Cognitive Mapping. In J. Lang, Burnette, C., Moleski, W., & D. Vachon (Ed.). Designing for Human Behavior: Architecture and the Behavioural Sciences. Stroudsburg.
Steck, .D., & Mallot, H.A. (2000). The Role of Global and Local Landmarks in Virtual Environment Navigation. Presence, 9(1), 69-83.
Tenbrink, T., & Wiener, J.M. (2007). Wayfinding Strategies in Behavior and Language: A Symmetric and Interdisciplinary Approach to Cognitive Processes. Spatial Cognition, 4(2), 401-420.
Weisman, J. (1981). Evaluating Architectural Legibility: Way-finding in the Built Environment. Environment and Behavior, 13, 189-204.
Werner, S., Schindler, & Laura E. (2004). The Role of Spatial Reference Frames in Architecture: Misalignment Impairs Way-Finding Performance. Environment and Behavior, 36(4), 461-482.
Wineman, J.D., & Peponis, J. (2010). Constructing Spatial Meaning: Spatial Affordances in Museum Design. Environment and Behavior, 42(1), 86-109.