نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناسارشد برنامهریزی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران.
2 استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Zoning, which is considered as an approach to guide urban development, was brought up in the early twentieth century. Although the rules resulting from zoning have had positive consequences, there have a number of drawbacks such as urban sprawl, urban fabric disposal, inner city travel increase etc. In the meantime, appropriate forms for development and connection between public and private spaces have been disregarded due to consumedly concerning land use. The form-based code is an approach which was presented for solving this issue. The present study is regarded as applied research due to its external purpose, and as descriptive research due to its internal purpose.
The transact approach has been applied in order to organize the case study, and data collection has been done through interviews, questionnaires and participatory meetings. According to the research purpose, which is to codify rules for urban development of the case study, namely district two of the city of Babolsar, the district was at first divided into T-zones on the basis of the defined criteria. Then, the Rules and Regulations were developed by analyzing large-scale and small-scale elements of the case study, and also by investigating the application of visioning findings by the rural-to-urban transect approach. Based on the results of the analyses, three zones (T3, T4 and T5) were defined in district two of Babolsar; The Rules and Regulating plan, which is a detailed equivalent to the Illustrative one, has been presented according to these T-zones.
The results of the present study indicate the fundamental differences between traditional zoning methods and form-based code, most notably are as follows. Attention to future developments according to requirements; which explains that the emphasis of the form-based code method is to determine the important and influential generalities in the form and shape of the environment by using these rules. Accordingly, suggestions will be made in the form codes of the proposed foundation for future developments and the characteristics of these developments. For example, due to existing features, shortcomings and potential ones, the type of possible development is identified in the upcoming plans (traditional development, business center development, transport-centric development). Zoning mode; which emphasizes on the zoning of the city based on existing and proposed accesses in the zoning of Babolsar city, as discovered in its detailed plan. Accordingly, the city is divided into 3 districts and these areas into 11 neighborhoods. In the proposed zoning of this area, based on the form-based codes, factors such as population density, construction, residential, open space, usage, etc. are considered. In fact, emphasis has been placed on the zoning formation based on the extent and severity of the urban areas, so that the proposed laws and regulations for the zones are more coherent and coordinated and the possibility of realization is provided. Preparing the terms; which include the common zoning rules that are in fact the output of comprehensive and detailed plan, while the rules for zoning the form of its foundation in the form of a project are sat and developed. It defines the criteria according to the cognition performed in the three phases of the region. In this plan, there is no need to take a long time such as what happens in preparing a comprehensive plan, and detailed plan. The average time for the process of preparing, approving and communicating both comprehensive and detailed plans of the city was about 4 years, because studies of both plans are based on the status quo, and normally the presentation of a project with more than one year of existence is inadequate. Group participation; which includes attention to participation in the formulation of rules and regulations in form-based codes. While in the standard terms and conditions emphasizing that the writing of the rules and regulations should only be done by the experts, the use of stakeholders and stakeholders is reduced. Coordination with future plans, that explains that in fact, the foundation codes are guides for future development in the form of projects and plans. Utilizing and emphasizing the prospect sector in formulating the terms and conditions of form-based codes act as a guide to future development within the scope. The perspective of this approach will determine the general framework and future development framework, and next projects and plans will be based on the participation of different groups in the vision of the region. Differences in development control practices; which controls building regulations from the height of the building, the occupancy level of the building, along with the density of residential units per unit area. Whereas, in conventional zoning, emphasis is more on occupancy and construction density. Flexibility; which ultimately explains that increased flexibility in terms and conditions considering the prediction of zoning flotation rules for some buildings that these terms are less relevant in conventional zoning.