مطالعه تطبیقی شهر باستانی جندی‌شاپور با شیوه شهرسازی شهرهای هم عصر آن‌ها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول، دزفول، ایران

2 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول، دزفول، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول، دزفول، ایران.

چکیده

«گندی شاپور» یا «جندی‌شاپور» یکی از مهم‌ترین شهرهای دوره ساسانی بود که توسط شاپور یکم ایجاد شده است. جندی‌شاپور از همان بدو تأسیس به‌تدریج به‌صورت یکی از مراکز علمی و پزشکی جهان آن روز درآمد. تاکنون پژوهش‌هایی در حوزه علوم تدریس شده در جندی‌شاپور و دیگر علوم آن دوره انجام شده است؛ لیکن توجه خاصی به بازشناسی شهر جندی‌شاپور، در زمینه شیوه‌ شهرسازی و ساختار شهری آن نشده است. در این پژوهش با بررسی ویژگی‌های شهرسازی شهرهای معاصر و هم‌دوره‌ آن، به بازشناسی شیوه‌ شهرسازی شهر باستانی جندی‌شاپور پرداخته می‌شود. روش تحقیق این پژوهش، به شیوه تطبیقی می‌باشد که در نمونه‌های مورد مقایسه در حوزه و شیوه شهرسازی ساسانی مورد ارزیابی قرار می‌گیرند. با بررسی ویژگی‌های شهرسازی شهر باستانی جندی‌شاپور، این نتیجه به‌دست می‌آید که در این دوره‌ زمانی (دوره‌ پادشاهی شاپور اول و شاپور دوم) شیوه‌ شهرسازی شطرنجی «هیپوداموس» مورد استفاده قرارگرفته است و شیوه‌ شهرسازی این شهر، تلفیقی از شهرسازی تمدن‌های مختلف دوره‌ باستان از جمله یونان و روم (شهرسازی هیپوداموس) و مشابه ساختار شهری شهرهای معاصر خود مانند: شهرهای ایوان کرخه، نیشابور، بیشابور و شهر انطاکیه می‌باشد. شکل شطرنجی شهرها به خاطر دو هدف کاملاً متضاد مورد توجه قرارگرفته است: یکی به‌منظور اطمینان از کنترل مرکزی و بیان کمال افسانه‌ای و دیگری تحقق جامعه‌ای که افراد آن دارای حقوق فردی برابر باشند. این طرح عبارت است از طرح مستطیل شهرسازی با خیابان‌های وسیع، مستقیم و چهارراه‌های منظم و کوچه‌های موازی که بناها نیز یک طبقه و گاهی دو و یا سه‌طبقه بوده‌اند. در نهایت از بررسی فرمی محدوده شهر، تقسیمات و ابنیه شهر می‌توان گفت که دوره‌های تاریخی احداث شهر در توسعه شهرهای باستانی، اقلیم و نزدیکی به مناطق جغرافیایی همسایه، وسعت بستر و اقتدار حکومت وقت تأثیرگذاری زیادی در شکل‌گیری فرم اصلی شهرها داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comaparative Study of Jundi Shapur Ancient City with the Urban Planning Style of its Concurrent Era

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kourosh Momeni 1
  • Koorosh Attarian 2
  • Mohammad Didehban 2
  • Negin Haj Mosa Brojerdi 3
  • Behzad Vasigh 2
1 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran.
3 M.A of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The importance of urbanization in the Sassanid period is enormous, and urbanization has been very important in this period. Unfortunately, archeological research on the architecture and urbanization of this period is still in its preliminary level, and despite the archeological activities that took place in Iran, historical sources are the most important documents used in the recognition of the Sassaniad architecture and urbanization. In the few studies that have been done, a number of cities in this period have been neglected. The research methodology in this study is comparative in which case studies are evaluated in Sassanid context and urbanization style. Initially, using library studies such as the study of books and articles, the history of architecture and urbanization of Jundishapur and other cities of that period were collected. Then, using maps and aerial surveys, the urban patterns of the samples are examined and analyzed based on the Sassanid urbanism. In researches carried out in the city of Jondishapur, the history of the city of Jondishapur and the study of the university and its hospital have been addressed. The Sassanid city, like the Persian city of the Achaemenid state, is based on religious beliefs influenced by a worldview. The city usually ends in a fence wall that has four gates, which itself reminiscent of the direction of the four elements of the ancient world conception. This part of the city was later called Sharistan. Eastern sources, consider about the conquest of the city of Antakiyeh by the Iranian kingdoms. But only two Shahs, Shapur I and Khosrow I, after the conquest of this city in case of the fascination and characteristics of that city, would have created a city pattern near their capital. The city of Jondishapur is one of the most important centers of the reign of the Sassanid dynasty and there are many valid documents to prove this. The problem in some references is to investigate the possibility of existence of this city before the Sassanid period. One of the most important issues in the city’s location is paying attention to factors such as abundant water, fertile soil, suitable climate, and lack of flood and seismicity. On the other hand, the issue of adjacency of this area to the cities of Elamite is also noticeable. In historical studies, Jundi shapur city describes with Seven Streets (Eastern East) and eleven Crossed Streets (Northern South). The width of the longitudinal streets was wider and was about 10 to 12 meters long. All of the city’s pavements were paved or brick floored. The city has various districts and each section has public facilities. The whole city has a sanitary water system from the Dez River. Gundi Shapur urban sewage had developed and was unique in its kind.
Urbanism and its main structure have undergone many changes during each period with regard to the climatic, social and economic conditions. As mentioned in the article, the governing structure of urban planning in traditional Iranian cities can be divided into eight general categories. These structures not only relate to the conditions of the construction site, but also to a large extent of other factors; even those with other countries, have been very influential in shaping them. The Sassanid style of urbanization was initially along the Parthians’ urbanization. But a new style emerged and called the Roman hypodamus style (fifth century architecture). This is called “grid” style. Looking at same aged cities similar to the ancient cities of Jondishapur (cities of Ivan Karkheh, Neyshabur, Bishapur and the city of Antioch) and the study of urbanization and urban structure, it is concluded that during this time period (The kingdom of Shapur I and Shapur II) the “Hypodomous” chess shaped urbanization method has been used. The grid shaped city form considerd for the two quite the opposite targets: One is to ensure central control and expression of legendary perfection, and the other to realize a society in which individuals equal rights. Jundishapur City is a compilation of the architecture of ancient civilizations. This is a special style that has been implemented since the 5th century BC in the cities of Rome and Greece and it is the rectangle form of urban planning with wide and direct streets, regular crossroads and parallel alleys, which also have one and sometimes two or three floors buildings across. At last, it can be said that the form and structure of city is a clear aspect of Sassanid urban planning which had political, social and economic consequences in the community. Studying city development and using the thoughts and decisions of people living in cities are important issues. It can help the authors to recognize other cities of this period, especially those cities with little archaeological evidence.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Jundi Shapur
  • Sassanid Urban Planning
  • University of Jundi Shapour
  • Shaar Sassanid
  • Hypodamus Urban Planning

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