عنوان مقاله [English]
The importance of urbanization in the Sassanid period is enormous, and urbanization has been very important in this period. Unfortunately, archeological research on the architecture and urbanization of this period is still in its preliminary level, and despite the archeological activities that took place in Iran, historical sources are the most important documents used in the recognition of the Sassaniad architecture and urbanization. In the few studies that have been done, a number of cities in this period have been neglected. The research methodology in this study is comparative in which case studies are evaluated in Sassanid context and urbanization style. Initially, using library studies such as the study of books and articles, the history of architecture and urbanization of Jundishapur and other cities of that period were collected. Then, using maps and aerial surveys, the urban patterns of the samples are examined and analyzed based on the Sassanid urbanism. In researches carried out in the city of Jondishapur, the history of the city of Jondishapur and the study of the university and its hospital have been addressed. The Sassanid city, like the Persian city of the Achaemenid state, is based on religious beliefs influenced by a worldview. The city usually ends in a fence wall that has four gates, which itself reminiscent of the direction of the four elements of the ancient world conception. This part of the city was later called Sharistan. Eastern sources, consider about the conquest of the city of Antakiyeh by the Iranian kingdoms. But only two Shahs, Shapur I and Khosrow I, after the conquest of this city in case of the fascination and characteristics of that city, would have created a city pattern near their capital. The city of Jondishapur is one of the most important centers of the reign of the Sassanid dynasty and there are many valid documents to prove this. The problem in some references is to investigate the possibility of existence of this city before the Sassanid period. One of the most important issues in the city’s location is paying attention to factors such as abundant water, fertile soil, suitable climate, and lack of flood and seismicity. On the other hand, the issue of adjacency of this area to the cities of Elamite is also noticeable. In historical studies, Jundi shapur city describes with Seven Streets (Eastern East) and eleven Crossed Streets (Northern South). The width of the longitudinal streets was wider and was about 10 to 12 meters long. All of the city’s pavements were paved or brick floored. The city has various districts and each section has public facilities. The whole city has a sanitary water system from the Dez River. Gundi Shapur urban sewage had developed and was unique in its kind.
Urbanism and its main structure have undergone many changes during each period with regard to the climatic, social and economic conditions. As mentioned in the article, the governing structure of urban planning in traditional Iranian cities can be divided into eight general categories. These structures not only relate to the conditions of the construction site, but also to a large extent of other factors; even those with other countries, have been very influential in shaping them. The Sassanid style of urbanization was initially along the Parthians’ urbanization. But a new style emerged and called the Roman hypodamus style (fifth century architecture). This is called “grid” style. Looking at same aged cities similar to the ancient cities of Jondishapur (cities of Ivan Karkheh, Neyshabur, Bishapur and the city of Antioch) and the study of urbanization and urban structure, it is concluded that during this time period (The kingdom of Shapur I and Shapur II) the “Hypodomous” chess shaped urbanization method has been used. The grid shaped city form considerd for the two quite the opposite targets: One is to ensure central control and expression of legendary perfection, and the other to realize a society in which individuals equal rights. Jundishapur City is a compilation of the architecture of ancient civilizations. This is a special style that has been implemented since the 5th century BC in the cities of Rome and Greece and it is the rectangle form of urban planning with wide and direct streets, regular crossroads and parallel alleys, which also have one and sometimes two or three floors buildings across. At last, it can be said that the form and structure of city is a clear aspect of Sassanid urban planning which had political, social and economic consequences in the community. Studying city development and using the thoughts and decisions of people living in cities are important issues. It can help the authors to recognize other cities of this period, especially those cities with little archaeological evidence.
Afshar Sistani, A. (1994). Khouzestan and its Ancient Civilization. Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance Publishing Organization, Tehran: Rozane Publishing, First Edition.
Afshar Sistani, A. (2001). Historical and Historic Works of Khuzestan. Tehran: Rozane Publishing, First Edition.
Alberti, M. (2005). The Effects of Urban Patterns on Ecosystem Function. Int .Reg. Sci.
Altheim, F. (2003). The History of the Economy of the Sassanian Government. (H. Sadeghi, Trans.). Tehran: Cultural Science Publishing.
Azimi, N., Azadeh, R., & Zare Rod Bazani, M. (2013). Geographical Analysis of City Form in Iran. Journal of Motaleate Shahri, 2(7), 89-100.
Eini Far, A.R., & Mirza Kochak Khoshnevic, A. (2002). Urban Imagery Recreation City of Historical Texts, Neyshabour Ghazan Khani, HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA Journal, 11, 77-88.
Farid, Y. (1989). Geography and Urbanis. Tabriz: Publications of Tabriz University.
Farivar Sadri, B. (2001). Texture and Structure of Traditional Iranian Cities. The Second Congress of Iranian Architecture and Urban History, Tehran: Publications of the Cultural Heritage Organization.
Habibi, M. (2013). From Flight to City. Tehran: Publications of Tehran University, 13th Edition.
Jalilian, Sh. (2012). The Name of the Jundishapur; Meaning and Concept. Journal of Historical Research of Iran and Islam, 11, 74- 59.
Jenks, M., & Dempsey, N. (2005). Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities. Architectural Press, Elsevier, Amesterdam.
Karimian, H. & Seydein, S. (2009). Recovery of Ancient Cities by Referring to the Historical Texts, Case Study: Darabgerd. The Scientific Journal of Nazar Research Center, for Art, Architecture & Urbanism, 11, 69-82.
Khodaei, M.Z. (2010). A New Glance at an Old City; Case Study Jundi Shapur in Shah Abad Village in Dazful suburbs. Journal of Historical Research, University of Esfahan, 1(4), 55-64.
Kiani, M.Y. (1986). A Glimpse of the City and Urbanization in Iran. Tehran: Islamic Guidance Publications, First Edition.
Labbaf Khaniki, M. (2017). Sasanian Cities: Historical and Archaeological Perspectives, Critical Studies in Texts and Programs of Human Sciences. Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 4(17), 67-80.
Mansouri, A. (2007). Spatial Organization of Iranian City in Tow Periods: Before and After Islam Based on Testimonies of Evaluations of the City of Kerman. The Scientific Journal of Nazar Research Center, for Art, Architecture & Urbanism, 4(7), 50-60.
Nakhaei, H. (1978). Historical Background of Gundi Shapur University. Ahwaz: Publications of Jundi Shapur University.
Pigo Los Kaia, N. (1989). Iranian Cities in the Periods of the Parthians and Sassanids. Translator: Reza Enayatullah, Tehran: Publishing of Scientific and Cultural.
Pour Ahmad, A., & Pour Ahmad, A. (2014). Building the Spatial City of Iran before and after Islam.Journal of Sustainable City, 1 (1).
Pour Mousavi, S.N. (2017). Date of Jundishapur. Dezful: Jundi-Shapur University of Technology.
Shah Mohammad Pour Salamani, A. (2015). The Urban Design Pattern of Bishapour. Journal of Iranian Architecture Studies, 6, 105-125.
Soltan Zadeh, H. (2011). A Brief History of City and Urbanization in Iran from the Ancient Period to 1355 AH. Tehran: Four Tahq Publications, First Edition.
Steadman, P., Bruhns, HR., Holtier S., & Gakivic B. (2000). A Classification of Built Forms. Environment and Planning B, Planning and Design, 27 (1), 73-91.
Tabari, M. (1989). History of Tabari: History of Rosol and Muluk. (A.G. Payandeh, Trans.). Tehran: Publications of Asatir.
Taghvai Nejad Deilami, M.R. (1987). Architecture of Urbanization and Urbanization of Iran over Time. Tehran: Publishing Padidah, Second Edition.
Takmil Homayoun, N. (2005). Gundhi Shapur University. Tehran: Publishing of Neil, First Edition.
Velayati, A.A. (2016). About Jundishapur. Dezful: Jundishapur University of Technology Publishing Company, First Edition.