عنوان مقاله [English]
Iranian Islamic city is a physical entity that represents social, cultural and political mechanisms in the Iranian territory where forms, elements, and rules governing the interaction of the inhabitants and the environment are based on the Islamic worldview. Physical, functional, and spatial centers constitute the main form of the city. Also, Bazaar is one of the main elements of traditional Islamic-Iranian cities which has been originally developed for the fulfilment of commercial and manufacturing functions. The present study attempts to analyze these important factors in the formation process of Bazaar structure, as an important factor shaping the ancient Islamic Iranian cities, and to investigate the relationship of these changes with the changes of the urban community. In order to investigate the role of Bazaar in the integrity of the physical form and the main structure of historic cities of Iran in the present study, a combination of descriptive, historical, and comparative research method was used through reviewing texts, sources and visual documents, and the analysis of the evolution of urban Bazaars in shaping the form of ancient Islamic Iranian cities. The results of this research indicate that the physical form, performance, activity dimension, and accessibility features of Bazaar in all historical periods from the beginning of the formation of the primary basis of Shiraz as an Iranian Islamic city have been impressive in the effectiveness of the role of Bazaar in the formation of this city, except for the contemporary period (from Pahlavi Era up to now). This has led to the reduced importance of Bazaar in the formation of Shiraz city with the transformation of its social and physical structures and the arrival of modern elements and, thereby, Bazaar has lost its past position.
Assari, A., Mahesh, T.M., & Assari, E. (2012). Conservation of Historic Urban Core in Traditional Islamic Culture: Case Study of Isfahan City. Indian J. Sci. Technol, 5(1), 1970–1976.
Babaei, H., Varasteh Dehkordi, N., & Bayat, P. (2014). The Role of Traditional Markets on the City’s Identity and Identity; Isfahan Market Case Study. The 2nd International Conference on Architecture, Urban Development and Development, Tabriz.
Barros, A.N., Martínez, L.M., & Viegas, J.M. (2017). Transportation Research Procedia, 27, 133-140.
Bazregar, M.R., Ghaffari Moaffagh, F., & Ghaffari Moaffagh, F. (2015). Spatial-Physical Analysis of the Market Formation Process as One of the Main Components of the Skeletal Structure of the Iranian-Islamic City. Proceedings of the First National Conference of Islamic Architecture of Iran, Shiraz.
Bertaud, A. (2006). The Spatial Organization of Cities: Deliberate Outcome or Unforeseen Consequence? World Development Report 2003, Dynamic Development in a Sustainable World Available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/129541468782382523/The-spatial-organization-of-cities-deliberate-outcome-or-unforeseen-consequence
Clark, B.D., & Costello, V. (1973). Urban System and Social Patterns in Iranian Cities. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 99-128.
Cochran, F., & Brunsell, N. (2017). Biophysical Metrics for Detecting More Sustainable Urban Forms at the Global Scale. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 6(2), 372-388.
Encyclopedia Islamica. (2012). Available from URL: http://www.encyclopaediaislamica.com/madkhal2.php?sid=181, accessed on 2012/23/05.
Flandine, E. (1977). Eugine Flandine’s Travel Literature to Iran. (H. Noorsadeghi, Trans.). Tehran: Eshragh Publication.
Ghaffari Khalaf Mohammadi, S.M., & Bahri, H. (2015). Urbanization Process with Emphasis on Market History in Iran. International Conference on Civil Engineering and Urban Planning, Tabriz.
Habibi, S.M., (2009). From Shar to City: A Historical Analysis of City and its Physical Image. Tehran, University of Tehran.
Habibi, S.M. (1998). Isfahan Doctrine in Urban Development. Honarhaye Ziba Publication, 3.
Ibn Balkhi. (1964). Farsnama; the Oldest History and Geography of Fars. Compiled by Behroozi, A. N., Shiraz: Fars Union Publication.
Ibn Battuta. (1969). Ibn Battuta’s Travel Literature. (M.A. Movahhed, Trans.). Tehran: Book Translation and Publication Institution.
Keshavarzian, A. (2009). Bazaar and State in Iran: The Politics of the Tehran Marketplace. New York University, United States of America.
Karimi, M.S., Moradi, E., & Alaei, A. (2012). The Evolution of Iranian Urban Markets. First National Conference on Sustainable Development in Geography and Planning, Architecture and Urban Science.
Lynch, K. (1981). A Theory of Good City From. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Masoudi Nejad, R. (2007). Social and Commercial: Comparative Study of Spatial Role of Iranian in the Historical Cities in Different Socio-economical Context. University College London, 187–200.
Moosavi, M.S. (2005). Bazaar and its Role in the Development of Iranian Traditional Cities. Conf. Proc. 2005 IRCICA int. Conf. Islamic Archeology.
Mazaheri, N. (2006). State Repression in the Iranian Bazaar, 1975– 1977: The Anti-profiteering Campaign and an Impending Revolution. Iran, Stud, 39(3), 401–414.
Nikpour, A., Lotfi, S., & Rezazadeh, M. (2017). Analysis of the Relationship between Urban Form and Access Indicator. Spatial Planning (Geography), 7(3), 85-106.
Pirnia, M.K., & Memarian, G.H. (2006). An Introduction to the Islamic Architecture of Iran. Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran.
Pourahmad, A. (2000). Geography and Functions of Kerman Market. Kermanshah Center Press.
Pourjafar, M.R., Ebrahimi Nazhad, A., & Ansari, M. (2013). Effective Factors in Structural Development of Iranian Historical Bazaars Case Study: Tabriz Bazaar. J. Basic Appl, Scientific Res, 3 (2), 272–282.
Pourjafar, M.R., Amini, M., Hatami Varzaneh, E., & Mahdavinejad, M.J. (2014). Role of Bazaars as a Unifying Factor in Traditional Cities of Iran: The Isfahan Bazaar. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 3, 10-19.
Rotblat, H.J. (1975). Social Organization and Development in an Iranian Provincial Bazaar. Econ. Develop. Cultural Change, 23(2), 292–305.
Sami, A. (1984). Shiraz, the Immortal City. Shiraz: Lux (Navid) Publication. The third edition.
Saraie, M.H. (2010). Developments in Iranian-Islamic Markets, A Case Study of Yazd Bazaar. Iranian Journal of Islamic Studies, 2, 25-37.
Sharifi, A., & Murayama, A. (2013). Changes in the Traditional Urban form and the Social Sustainability of Contemporary Cities: A Case Study of Iranian Cities. Habitat International, 38, 126-134.
Soltanzadeh, H. (2004). Iranian Markets, Cultural Research Center, Tehran.
Wirth, E. (1974). Zum Problem des Bazar (Suq, Carsi). Der Islam, 51(2), 203-260.