تأثیر معماری ایران بر بناهای آرامگاهی در عصر سلجوقیان رم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

ایران در طول تاریخ اسلام  و به‌خصوص عصر سلجوقی همواره یکی از مراکز اصلی هنر اسلامی بوده است. از سوی دیگر عثمانی‌ها در زمینه معماری با الهام از هنر ایران و بیزانس، گام‌های بزرگی برداشته‌اند. به‌دلیل همجواری ایران و عثمانی و نیز تبادلات فرهنگی و وجوه مشترک حکومتی، هنر و معماری این دو سرزمین از یکدیگر ایده گرفته و تشابهاتی دارند. هدف مقاله بررسی تطبیقی شاخصه‌ها و عناصر معماری بناهای یادمانی و آرامگاهی ساخته شده در عصر سلجوقیان رم که الهام گرفته شده از بناهای آرامگاهی و مساجد ایرانی می‌باشند، بوده است. چارچوب نظری پژوهش، بر این دیدگاه استوار است که فضاهای معماری در گذشته از پدیده‌های فرهنگی تأثیر می‌پذیرفتند و همچنین تبادل فرهنگی بر شکل‌گیری آن‌ها نقش داشته است. روش تحقیق این پژوهش، روش تحقیق تاریخی- تفسیری می‌باشد و به بررسی، مطالعه و مقایسه ترکیب حجمی بنا، نوع تزیینات و نقوش کاشی‌کاری بناهای آرامگاهی سلجوقی رم و بناهای ایرانی عصر سلجوقی می‌پردازد تا بیانگر تأثیر فرهنگ و تبادل فرهنگی در معماری شود. یافته‌های این پژوهش بر این نکات تأکید دارند که هنر و معماری سلاجقه روم قبل از حضور ایرانیان متأثر از هنر دمشق بوده است؛ اما با آمدن هنرمندان ایرانی و بخش‌هایی از معماری با نقوش و تزیینات ایرانی ساخته می‌شد. تعامل میان ایرانیان و حاکمان سلجوقی روم و شرایط مناسب فراهم شده توسط آنان باعث شد ایرانیان به همراه خود فرهنگ، آداب و رسوم و نشانه‌های بارزی از علم و هنر و دانش رایج در ایران عصر سلجوقی را رواج دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Iran’s Architecture on Mortuary Buildings of Rome’s Seljuk Era

نویسندگان [English]

  • Neda Belanian 1
  • Hussein Soltanzadeh 2
  • Shervin Mirshahzadeh 3
1 Ph.D. of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In the course of Islam’s history and, especially, Seljuks Era, Iran has always been one of the primary loci of Islamic Art. On the other hand, ottomans have taken long leaps in the area of architecture through being inspired by Iranian and Byzantine Art. Due to Iran and ottoman adjacency as well as their cultural exchanges and the common governmental aspects, the art and architecture of these two territories have borrowed ideas from one another and share similarities. The goal of the present article is the comparative investigation of the architectural indices and elements of the memorial and mortuary buildings constructed during Seleucid Era in Rome and inspired by the mortuary and mosque buildings of Iran. The study theoretical framework is laid on the foundation of the perspective that the past architectural spaces are influenced by the cultural phenomena and the cultural exchanges have played roles in their formation. The present study’s research methodology is historical-interpretive and it deals with the investigation, exploration and comparison of the volumetric combination of the buildings, types of decorations and tile works’ images and paintings in the mortuary buildings of Seleucid Era’s Rome and the Seleucid Era’s Iranian edifices so as to reveal the effect of culture and cultural exchange in architecture. The present study’s findings underline the issue that the art and architecture of Seleucid Era’s Rome have been influenced by Damascus Art before the presence of the Iranians; however, it was with the arrival of the Iranian artists that parts of the architecture were constructed by Iranian images and decorations. The interaction between Iranians and rulers of Seleucid Era’s Rome and the auspicious conditions provided by them caused the Iranians to promote culture, rites and traditions and distinct signs of science, art and knowledge that were prevalent in the then Iran upon their entry into Rome.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mortuary Buildings
  • cultural exchange
  • Architecture
  • Decorations
  • Iran’s Seljuk
  • Rome’s Seljuks

Abeddost, H. ( 2009). The Survival of Ancient Sphinxes and Harpies in Islamic Art. Negare, (13). 81-91.

Akbari, A. (2008). Investigation of the Origin of Animal Motifs of Silk Hill Pottery. Naghsh maye, (19).

Akurgal, E., & Léo, H. (1980). The Art and Architecture of Turkey. New York: Rizzoli.

Arianam Consulting Engineers. (2008). Khadijeh Khatoon Shrine Restoration in Ghom.

Aslanapa, O. (1971). Turkish Art and Architecture. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Behnam, E. (1963). Red Dome of Maragheh. Honar va Mardom, Tehran, 8.

Beler, Sh., & Jonathan, B. (2002). The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250-1800.

Bozorgnia, Z. (2007). Tomb in Iran. Memar, Tehran, 42.

Fehravari, G. (2000). Ceramics of the Islamic Worlds in the Tareq Rajab Museum. Tauris.

Grabar,O. (1999). The Earliest Islamic Commemorative Structures. Notes and Doucuments. Ars orientalis, VI.

Groter, Y. (1996). Aestheticism in Architecture. (Jahanshah Pakzad). Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University.

Hadi, A. (2013). Research on the Causes of the Emergence and Typology of Rok Dome in Iran. Holly Shrines International Congress. Isfahan University.

Hasani, A., & Taghvaei, F. (2010). Iranian Brokers in the Rom Seljuq Office. Maskoeye. Tehran, 3.

Hillenbrand, R. (1994). Islamic Architecture: form Function and Meaning. New York: Colombia University Press.

Hillenbrand, R. (2000). Temple of Islamic Architecture in Iran. Tehran: Samt.

Khazaei, M. (2007). The Presence of Iranian Decorative Elements in the Process of Forming the Architecture of the Seljuk Architecture of Asia Minor in Seventh Century AH. Ketab_e_Mah_e_Honar, Tehran, 103-104.

Meshkati, N. (1970). List of Iranian Monumenta and Summer Places. Iranian Antiquities Organization, Tehran.

Mosavi, Z. (2002). Mogharnas in Architecture. Ketab_e_Mah_e_Honar, 45-46.

Nasiri Ansari, M. (1971). A Review of Iran Architecture. Tehran: Press of Honarsarai ali.

Pirnia, M. (2008). Stylistics. Tehran: Sorosh e Danesh.

Pope, A. (1987). Iran Architecture Win a Shapes and Color. (K. Afsar, Trans.). Yasavoli.

Pope, A. (2003). Survey in Persian art from Prehistoric time to Present. Edited by Phyllis Ackerman, Oxford University Press, I, London.

Rami, H. (2011). Exploring and Studying the Towers-the Tomb of the 8th and 9th Centuries in Mazandaran; Case Study: Shams Al Rasool Shrine in Amol. Maremat e Asar va Bafthaye Tarikhi va Farhangi, Tehran, (2).

Rogers, J.M. (1965). The Çifte Minare Medrese at Erzurum and the Gök Medrese at Sivas. Anatolian Studies.

Sahafi ASL, P., & Ayatolahi, H. (2011). Investigation of the Continuity of the Ancient Persian Architectural Elements in Islamic Architecture of Iran until the End of the Safavid Period. Negareh, Tehran. (19).

Şaman Dogan, N. (2013). Niğde’deki Türk Dönemi (13-15. Yüzyıl) Yapılarında Taç Kapı-Mihrap Tasarımı ve Bezeme İlişkisi. Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi. Journal of Faculty of Letters, Cilt, Haziran, 30(1).

Shekofte, A., Ahmadi, H., & Oodbashi, O. (2015). The Brickwork of the Seljuks and its Continuity in the Decorations of the Kharazmshahi and Ilkani Era. Journal of Researches in Islamic Architecture. Iran University of Science and Technology. Tehran, 3(6).

Sinclair, T.A. (1989). Eastern Turkey: an Architectural and Archaeological Survey. London: The Pindar Press II.

WWW. Arianica.com, Accessed on 23.09.2014.

WWW. Gonabadnews.com, Accessed on 23.09.2014.

WWW. Freersackler.si.edu/collections-area/islamic/, Accessed on 23.09.2014.

WWW. Smb.museum/en/museums-institutions/vorderasiatisches-museum/collection-research, Accessed on 15.08.2014.

Wilson, Ch. (1938). History of Industries. (A. Feriar, Trans.). Tehran: Yavasoli.

Zaki, M.H. (1941). Iranian Industries after Islam. (M.A. Khalili, Trans.). Tehran.