تبیین نقش عوامل محیطی فضاهای آموزشی در تسهیل یادگیری دانش‌آموزان مقطع ابتدایی، موردهای مطالعاتی: دبستان‌های شهید بهشتی و علامه طباطبایی همدان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد همدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، همدان، ایران.

2 استادیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد همدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، همدان، ایران

3 استادیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد همدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، همدان، ایران.

چکیده

معماری مدارس و عناصر تشکیل‌دهنده آن در کنار سایر عوامل آموزشی، اثرات قابل‌توجهی بر دانش‌آموزان می‌گذارد. این پژوهش به‌منظور تبیین ارتباط و نقش عوامل محیطی بخش آموزش با تسهیل یادگیری کودکان در مقطع ابتدایی با دو رویکرد کیفی و کمی انجام‌شده است. بخش اول مروری بر پیشینه نظری با رویکرد کیفی و روشی توصیفی و بخش دوم با رویکرد کمی و از طریق روش همبستگی صورت گرفت. نمونه‌های مطالعاتی پژوهش فوق از بین دبستان‌های شهر همدان بوده و باتوجه به این امر که نیاز بود مدارسی انتخاب شوند تا کنترل متغیرهای مزاحم در آن‌ها حداکثر مقدار ممکن باشد؛ پس از بررسی‌های لازم دو نمونه از محیط‌های آموزشی، یعنی دبستان‌های دخترانه شهید بهشتی و علامه طباطبایی که حائز شرایط موردنیاز پژوهش بودند انتخاب شدند. متغیر مستقل، عوامل محیطی سازنده بخش آموزشی و متغیر وابسته عملکرد تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان در نظر گرفته شده است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز مربوط به متغیر مستقل از طریق تهیه فهرست مشاهدات و بررسی سطح استاندارد عوامل سازنده محیط آموزش که با مقیاس لیکرت رتبه‌بندی و در یک طیف پنج گزینه‌ای تهیه و جمع‌آوری شد و عملکرد تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان بر اساس بررسی معدل پایان‌ترم آن‌ها تعیین شده است. اطلاعات به‌دست‌آمده از طریق نرم‌افزار Spss مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت و آزمون همبستگی بیان کرد از بین عوامل محیطی سازنده فضای آموزشی بین شش عامل: کیفیت نور، آسایش صوتی، تجهیزات آموزشی، نو بودن کلاس‌ها، تنوع در فرم و مبلمان انعطاف‌پذیر، با عملکرد تحصیلی کودکان ارتباط مثبت و معنی‌دار وجود دارد. مجموعه‌ این عوامل در کنار یکدیگر شرایطی را فراهم می‌کنند تا دانش‌آموز بتواند راحت‌تر بر روی مطالب درسی تمرکز کند، از طرفی شرایط بهتری برای معلم به‌وجود می‌آورد تا او نیز بتواند مطالب درسی را بهتر به دانش‌آموزان انتقال دهد؛ از این طریق باعث تسهیل یادگیری برای دانش‌آموزان می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Elaborating the Role of the Educational Spaces’ Environmental Factors in Facilitating the Learning by the Primary School Students; Case Studies: Shahid Beheshti and Allameh Tabataba’ei Primary Schools in Hamadan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mozhgan Torkaman 1
  • Sara Jalalian 2
  • Omid Dezhdar 3
1 M.A. of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The architectural designing of the schools and their constituent elements alongside with the other educational factors has a considerable effect on the students. The present study has been conducted for the purpose of elucidating the relationship between and the role of the educational sector’s environmental factors in facilitation of the children’s learning in the primary school grades based on two qualitative and quantitative approaches. The first part is a literature review using a qualitative approach and a descriptive method and the second part uses a quantitative approach based on correlation method. The study samples have been selected from amongst the primary schools in Hamadan and in regard of the idea that it was necessary to choose the schools for controlling the interfering variables to the maximum possible extent. After performing the required investigations, two samples of the educational environments, i.e. Shahid Beheshti girl primary school and Allameh Tabataba’ei primary school, were selected for possession of the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the environmental factors constructing the educational sector and the dependent variable was the students’ academic achievement. The required data related to the independent variable was prepared and collected through preparation of a list of observations and investigation of the standard level of the factors constructing the educational environment that were rated based on Likert’s five-point scale; the students’ academic achievement was determined based on the investigation of the students’ average final scores in the end of the term. The obtained data was analyzed through SPSS software and it was found out in correlation test that there are significant and positive relationships between six of the environmental factors constructing the educational spaces, i.e. quality of light, acoustic comfort, educational equipment, newness of the classrooms, diversity in form and flexible furniture with the children’s academic achievement. The collection of these factors at one another’s side set the ground for the conditions under which the student can more comfortably concentrate on the lesson materials. On the other hand, these are expected to provide better conditions for the teachers for better transferring of the lesson materials to the students thereby to facilitate the students’ learning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental Factors
  • Educational Spaces
  • Learning
  • children
  • Education

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