سنجش اجتماع‌پذیری محیط شهری از طریق تطبیق نقشه‌های شناختی و نقشه‌های پیکره‌بندی فضایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

5 استادیار شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

چکیده

حضور و تعاملات اجتماعی مردم در فضا‌های عمومی معماری و شهری، اجتماع‌پذیری فضا‌ها را رقم می‌زند. در پژوهش حاضر، سنجش اجتماع‌پذیری فضا‌های عمومی شهری موضوع بحث است. کیفیت اجتماع‌پذیری، خصلت جدایی‌ناپذیر فضا‌های عمومی شهری است؛ اما در برخی از فضا‌های عمومی شهری کمرنگ شده یا از بین رفته است. مقاله حاضر در راستای پاسخ به این پرسش که: سنجش اجتماع‌پذیری محیط با تمرکز بر دو رویکرد انسانی و محیطی چگونه و با چه اجزایی صورت می‌گیرد، شکل گرفت. بدین منظور، محله عودلاجان تهران به عنوان مورد مطالعاتی انتخاب و مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بستر‌های احتمالی شکل‌گیری تعاملات اجتماعی در این محله (از دو جنبه محیط‌محور و انسان‌محور) مورد ارزیابی واقع شد. در این پژوهش، ادبیات، مبانی نظری، شاخص‌های مورد بررسی و روش تحقیق مناسب با استناد به منابع دست اول جمع‌آوری و دسته‌بندی شدند. روش تحقیق مقاله حاضر، دو بخش شناختی و فضایی را شامل می‌شود. در بخش شناختی، با استفاده از اسناد و نقشه‌های موجود، نقشه محله تهیه شد که پس از بازدید‌های میدانی و مصاحبه با ساکنان محلی و غیرمحلی، یافته‌های شناختی گردآوری و به تولید نقشه‌های شناختی منجر شد. پیکره‌بندی فضایی محله نیز از طریق پارامتر‌‌های کمی روش چیدمان فضا مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. در نهایت از مقایسه داده‌های کمی و کیفی حاصله، به تحلیل اجتماع‌پذیری در محله عودلاجان اقدام شد. یافته‌های پژوهش حاکی از آن بود که اصل قرار دادن مدلسازی رایانه‌ای نحو فضا در سنجش مفاهیم اجتماعی، مفید بوده اما کافی نیست ‌و به‌منظور اقدامات کالبدی در جهت بهبود وضعیت اجتماعی بافت‌های شهری، نیاز است که از روش‌های مکملی همچون نقشه‌های شناختی نیز بهره گرفته شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Sociability of Urban Environment Using “Cognitive Maps” and “Spatial Configuration Maps”

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeid Alitajer 1
  • Pooria Saadati Vaghar 2
  • Ahmad Heidari 3
  • Amir Mohammad Farrokhi 4
  • Hassan Sajjadzadeh 5
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Arts & Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.
2 M.A. of Architecture, Faculty of Arts & Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University Hamadan, Iran
3 M.A. of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
4 M.A. of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
5 Associate Professor of Urban Design, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The presence and social interaction of people in the public spaces of architecture and urbanism lead to the spaces’ sociability. In the present research, the subject of discussion was the sociability of public spaces. The quality of sociability is the inseparable feature of the urban public spaces but, it has been faded or lost in some urban public spaces. The present study sought to answer this question: how and with what parts, the measurement of the environment sociability is performed with focus on the two human and environmental approaches? To do this, Oudlajan neighborhood of Tehran was selected and investigated as the case study. Possible platforms of social interactions’ formation were investigated in this area (from two environment-based and human-based aspects). In this research, proper literature, theoretical foundations, the studied indexes, and research method were collected and classified using first hand resources. The present methodology included two cognitive and spatial sections. In the cognitive section, using available documents and maps, the area map was prepared. After field visits and interviewing with the local and nonlocal residents, cognitive findings were collected and cognitive maps were produced. The spatial configuration of the neighborhood was evaluated through quantitative parameters of the space syntax method. Finally, comparing qualitative and quantitative data, sociability of the Oudlajan neighborhood was analyzed. Findings of the research showed that it has been useful to consider the space syntax computer modelling as a principal in the evaluation of social concepts, althought it was not enough. In order for somatic activities to improve social status of the urban tissues, it is required to use complementary methods such as cognitive maps.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sociability
  • Spatial Cognition
  • Cognitive Map
  • Spatial Configuration

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