عنوان مقاله [English]
During the recent years, despite the suffusion of the globalization discussions and expansion of the relationships in the virtual world, the place and sense of place are still in the focal point of the attention in many of the theoretical and empirical studies. The importance of integrating the objective and subjective approaches into these concepts underlines the balance and equilibrium in concomitantly dealing with the physical properties of the places and the social and cultural values of the society. In this regard, narrating the society’s stories, including memories, beliefs, values and myths in the urban space, would be effective in the strengthening of the bond with them. This is while the majority of the prior stories and events are neglected in dealing with urban spaces and places. Thus, it is necessary to deal with the society’s narrations in the text of urban space as the factor connecting the individuals to their living environments. The present article investigates the role of the society’s stories and their narrations in respect to the fortification of the sense of place. The main question is that how the sense of place can be reinforced and continued by the assistance of the narrations and readings of the society’s stories in the urban spaces? To do so, use has been made of a descriptive-analytical method to firstly review the texts and theories related to this issue and explore the experts’ concepts and notions; then, the primary concepts’ interrelationships are explicated and analyzed. Based on the positive and corroborating effect of the narrations of the place stories on the sense of place and within the format of the layered semiotic approach, the urban space will be introduced as a text and its stories are consequently considered as the textual layers. In order to preserve the coherence of the place’s text in whole, the role and value of the various layers of the place’s text- activities, form and imaginations- should be aligned with and strengthening the value and role of the textual layer of the place’s stories. To display the stories, it has to be specified within a context that which stories are of greater importance to society. Then, the physical and non-physical methods and elements showcasing them should be determined.
Ahari, Z. (2011). City, Ceremony, Collective Memory A Study on the Relation of Ceremonies and Urban Spaces in Safavid and Qajar Eras. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi, 3(47), 5-16.
Altman, I., & Low, S.M. (1992). Place Attachment. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Assche, K.V., Duineveld, M., Jong, H.D., & Zoest, A.V. (2012). What Place is This Time? Semiotics and the Analysis of Historical Reference in Landscape Architecture. Journal of Urban Design, 17(2), 233-254.
Barthes, R. (1977). Image, Music, Text. (Heath. S, Trans.). London: Fontana.
Boyer, C.M. (1994). The City of Collective Memory. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Calvino, I. (2009). The Invisible Cities. (Raysi. B, Trans.). Iran, Tehran: Ketab-e-Khorshid Publication.
Carmona, M., Heath, T., Oc, T., & Tiesdell, S. (2003). Public Places-Urban Spaces. Oxford: Architectural Press.
Childs, M.C. (2008). Storytelling and Urban Design. Journal of Urbanism, 1(2), 173- 186.
Davarpanah, A. (2012). Introduction to Management and Application of Signs and Symbols in Urban Space. Iran, Tehran: Daryaft Publication.
Depriest-Hricko, L.R., & Prytherch, D.L. (2013). Planning and Sense of Place in a ‘Dying’ Downtown: Articulating Memories and Visions in Middletown, Ohio. Journal of Urban Design, 18(1), 145- 165.
Dinesen, A.M. (2001). Grundbogi Wemiotik (Introduction to Semiotics). (Ghahreman. M, Trans.). Iran, Abadan: Porsesh Publication.
Droseltis, O., & Vignoles, V.L. (2010). Towards an Integrative Model of Place Identification: Dimensionality and Predictors of Intrapersonal-level Place Preferences. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 23-24.
Falahat, M.S. (2006). The Concept of Sense of Place and Its Factors. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba, 1(26), 57-66.
Filep, C.V., Thompson-Fawcett, M., & Rae, M. (2014). Built Narratives. Journal of Urban Design, 19(3), 298-316.
Golkar, K. (2008). Concept Evolution of Urban Visual Environment; From Cosmetic Approach through to Sustainable Approach. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5(4), 95-114.
Guiraud, P. (2001). Semiotics. (Nabavi. M, Trans.). Iran, Tehran: Agah publication.
Habibi, S.M. (2012). Tale of the City; Tehran, Iranian Modernist Symbol of the City. (2nd Ed.). Iran, Tehran: Tehran University Press.
Hay, R. (1998). Sense of Place in Developmental Context. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 5-29.
Jorgensen, B.S., & Stedman, R. (2001). Sense of Place as an Attitude: Lakeshore Property Owners’ Attitudes toward their Properties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 233–248.
Jorgensen, B.S., & Stedman, R.C. (2006). A Comparative Analysis of Predictors of Sense of Place Dimensions: Attachment to, Dependence on, and Identification with Lakeshore Properties. Journal of Environmental Management, 79, 316-327.
Jorgensen, B.S., & Stedman, R.C. (2011). Measuring the Spatial Component of Sense of Place: A Methodology for Research on the Spatial Dynamics of Psychological Experiences of Places. Environment and Planning. B, Planning & Design, 38, 795–813.
Kudryavtsev, A., Stedman, R.C., & Krasny, M.E. (2012). Sense of Place in Environmental Education. Environmental Education Research, 18(2), 229-250.
Lewicka, M. (2008). Place Attachment, Place Identity, and Place Memory: Restoring the Forgotten City Past. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28, 209-231.
Lewicka, M. (2011). Place Attachment: How Far have we come in the Last 40 Years? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31(3), 207-230.
Manzo, L.C. (2005). For Better or Worse: Exploring Multiple Dimensions of Place Meaning. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 67-86.
Mirmoghtadaee, M. (2009). The Criteria for Evaluation of Formation, Remembering and Recording of Collective Memory. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba, 37, 5-16.
Misra, Sh., & Stokols, D. (2012). A Typology of People- Environment Relationships in the Digital Age. Technology in Society, 34, 311-325.
Montgomery, J. (2008). The New Wealth of Cities; City Dynamics and the Fifth Wave. Hampshire: Ashgate.
Nielsen-Pincus, M., Hall, T., Force, J.E., & Wulfhorst, J.D. (2010). Sociodemographic Effects on Place Bonding. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 443-454.
Pretty, G.H., Chipuer, H.M., & Bramston, P. (2003). Sense of Place Amongst Adolescents and Adults in Two Rural Australian Towns: The Discriminating Features of Place Attachment, Sense of Community and Place Dependence in Relation to Place Identity. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 273- 287.
Proshansky, H.M. (1978). The City and Self-identity. Journal of Environment and Behaviour, 10, 57-83.
Relph, E. (1976). Place and Placelessness. London: Pion.
Relph, E. (2007). Spirit of Place and Sense of Place in Virtual Realities. Techne, 10(3), 17-25.
Rosenthal, G., & Fischer-Rosenthal, W. (2004). The Analysis of Narrative Biographical Interviews. in U. Flick, et al. (eds) A Ccompanion to Qualitative Research, London: Sage.
Rota, F.S., & Salone, C. (2014). Place-making Processes in Unconventional Cultural Practices. The Case of Turin’s Contemporary art Festival Paratissima. Cities, 40, 90-98.
Sacco, P.L., & Blessi, G.T. (2007). Urban Regeneration, Culture and Happiness; Bridging Communities through Cultural Policies: A Theoretical Framework. Policy for Happiness, Siena, 15 – 16.
Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). Deﬁnin g Place Attachment: A Tripartite Organi Zing Framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 1-10.
Shamai, S. (1991). Sense of Place: An Empirical Measurement. Geoforum, 22(3), 347-358.
Shumaker, S.A., & Taylor, R.B. (1983). Toward a Clarification of People-place Relationships: A Model of Attachment to Place. In Feimer, N., and Geller, E.S. (Eds.). Environmental Psychology: Directions and Perspectives. New York, NY: Praeger.
Sojoodi, F. (2008). Applied Semiotics. (2nd Ed.). Iran, Tehran: Elm Publication.
Sojoodi, F. (2009). Semiotics: Theory & Practice. Iran, Tehran: Elm Publication.
Spartz, J.T., & Shaw, B.R. (2011). Place Meanings Surrounding an Urban Natural Area: A Qualitative Inquiry. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31, 344-352.
Stedman, R.C. (2003). Is It Really Just a Social Construction? The Contribution of the Physical Environment to Sense of Place. Society and Natural Resources, 16, 671-685.
Steele, F. (1981). The Sense of Place. Boston, MA: CBI Publishing Company.
Stokowski, P. (2008). Creating Social Senses of Place: New Directions for Sense of Place Research in Natural Resource Management. General Technical Report. PNWGTR-744. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Paciﬁc Northwest Research Station.
Summerson, H. (2012). Visiting the Past (Review Article). Journal of Historical Geography, 38, 192-195.
Taylor, R.B., Gottfredson, S.D., & Brower, S. (1985). Attachment to Place: Discriminant Validity, and Impacts of Disorder and Diversity. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 525-542.
Tuan, Y.F. (1974). Space and Place: Humanistic Perspective. Progress in Geography, 6, 233-246.
Tuan, Y.F. (1975). Place: an Experiential Perspective. The Geographical Review, 65, 151-165.
Tuan, Y.F. (1977). Space and Place. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Twigger-Ross, C.L., & Uzzell, D.L. (1996). Place and Identity Processes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 205-220.
Williams, D.R. (2014). Making Sense of Place: Reflections on Pluralism and Positionality in Place Research. Perspective Essay. Landscape and Urban Planning, 131, 74-82.
Yanushkevich, I. (2014). Semiotics of Social Memory in Urban Space: The Case of Volgograd (Stalingrad). International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 2(1), 43-50.