عنوان مقاله [English]
Every year, thousands of individuals leave their houses for studying in universities and experiencing a new environment. In the course of such relocation, one of the main challenges of individuals is the lack of adaptation to the new environment. The present study has been carried out with the objective of explaining the relationship between public open spaces in the faculties and the students’ place attachment. Based on the study’s theoretical model, place attachment is an emotional, cognitive and behavioral bond between the students and the faculty. On the other hand, the faculty’s public open spaces have been defined as the resultant of the physical factors. The study’s theoretical model was subjected to test in the fine arts faculty of Tehran University using the survey research method. To gather the data, use was made of a closed-ended questionnaire. Moreover, Structural Equation Modeling was the method of choice for analyzing the answers. In the current research paper, the measurement model of students’ place attachment and the faculty’s public open spaces were seminally tested; their fit indices were subsequently evaluated and the study’s structural model was eventually examined. The study findings indicated that the public open spaces have a significant effect on the students’ attachment to place. Corresponding to the study findings, the favorability of the meeting spaces is the most important factor forming and strengthening the attachment to place in the university students. Favorable meeting spaces set the ground for interaction establishment opportunities so they can enhance the social interactions between the students that can per se effectively influence the students’ attachment to place. Therefore, according to the study results that indicated the main role of social interactions in the formation of attachment to place in the students, the designing of the faculties’ public open spaces should be conducted in such a way that it can result in face-to-face interactions amongst the students to the maximum possible extent. Furthermore, the study results indicated that the favorability of the meeting spaces significantly associated with the existence of artistic or architectural elements and suitability of the green spaces. Artistic or architectural elements play their role by the formation of a distinct and meaningful environmental personality for the students and the green spaces by creating visual fascination.
Bergin, C., & Bergin, D. (2009). Attachment in classroom. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 141-170.
Bidwell, S.M. (1990), Using drama to increase motivation, comprehension and fluency. Journal of Reading, 34, 38-41. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10648-009-9104-0
Bonaiuto, M., Aiello, A., Perugini, M., Bonnes, M., & Ercolani, A.P. (1999). Multidimensional perception of residential environment quality and neighbourhood attachment in the urban environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 331-352. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S027249449990138X
Bonaiuto, M., Fornara, F., & Bonnes, M. (2003). Indexes of perceived residential environment quality and neighborhood attachment in urban environments: a confirmation study on the city of Rome. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65, 41- 52. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204602002360
Brown, B., Perkins, D.D., & Brown, G. (2003). Place attachment in a revitalizing neighborhood: individual and block levels of analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 259–271. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494402001172
Case, D. (1996). Contributions of journeys away to the definition of home: an empirical study of a dialectical process. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 1-15. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494496900018
Chow, K., & Healey, M. (2008). Place attachment and place identity: first-year undergraduates making the transition from home to university. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28, 362-372. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494408000236
Dober, R.P. (1992). Campus design. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Eckert, E. (2012). Examining the Environment: The Development of a Survey Instrument to Assess Student Perceptions of the University Outdoor Physical Campus. Unpublished Ph.D Dissretation, Kent State University.
Falahat, M.S. (2006). The Sense of Space and its Factors. HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA, 1(26), 57-66. https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=64584
Fornara, F., Bonaiuto, M., & Bonnes, M. (2009). Cross-validation of Abbreviated Perceived Residential Environment Quality (PREQ) and Neighborhood Attachment (NA) indicators. Environment and Behavior, 42, 171-196. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0013916508330998
Francaviglia, R.V. (1978). Xenia rebuilds: effects of pre-disaster conditioning on post-disaster redevelopment. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 44, 13–24. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944367808976873?journalCode=rjpa19
Fried, M. (1963). Grieving for a lost home. In L. J. Duhl (Ed.), The urban condition: People and policy in the metropolis. New York: Simon & Schuster, 124-152.
Fried, M. (1982). Residential attachment: Sources of residential and community satisfaction. Journal of Social Issues, 38, 107-119. https://spssi.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1982.tb01773.x
Fried, M. (2000). Continuities and discontinuities of place. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20, 193-205. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494499901548
Fullilove, M.T. (1996). Psychiatric implications of displacement: contributions from the psychology of place. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1516- 1523. http://ef.eskibars.com/psych.pdf
Gaines, T. A. (1991). The campus as a work of art. New York, NY: Praeger.
Garcia, T., & Pintrich, P.R. (1992). Critical thinking and its relationship to motivation, learning strategies, and classroom experience. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, August. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED351643
Goodenow, C., & Grady, K.E. (1993). The relationship of school belonging and friends’ values to academic motivation among urban adolescent students. Journal of Experimental Education, 62, 60-71. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20152398?seq=1
Griffith, J.C. (1994). Open space preservation: An imperative for quality campus environments. Journal of Higher Education, 65(6), 645-669. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2943823?seq=1
Harlan, S.L., Larsen, L., Hackett, E.J., Wolf, S., Bolin, B., & Hope, D. (2005). Neighborhood attachment in urban environments. In Paper presented at the Annual Sociological Association, Philadelphia.
Harrington, D. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis. Oxford: Oxford University.
Hidalgo, M.C., & Hernandez, B. (2001). Place attachment: conceptual and empirical questions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 273-281. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S027249440190221X
Hernandez, B., Hidalgo, M.C., Salazar-Laplace, M.E., & Hess, S. (2007). Place attachment and place identity in natives and non-natives. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27(4), 310-319. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494407000515?via%3Dihub
Hummon, D.M. (1992). Community attachment: local sentiment and sense of place. In I. Altman, & S. M. Low (Eds.), Place attachment, New York: Plenum Press, 253–278.
Hunter, A. (1974). Symbolic communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Javan Forouzande, A., & Motalebi, G. (2011). The Concept of Place Attachment and its Elements. HOVIATESHAHR, 4(8), 27-37. https://www.sid.ir/En/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=248837
Kaplan, S., & Kaplan, R. (Eds.). (1978). Humanscape: Environments for people. N. Scituate, MA: Duxbury.
Kasarda, J.D., & Janowitz, M. (1974). Community attachment in mass society. American Sociological Review, 39, 328-339. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2094293.pdf?seq=1
Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (2nd Edition Ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Lewicka, M. (2011). Place attachment: How far have we come in the last 40 years? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31, 207-230. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494410000861
Lewicka, M. (2010). What makes neighborhood different from home and city? Effects of place scale on place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 35-51. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494409000449
Li, M. (2011). Place attachment in university students: social antecedents and academic motivations. Unpublished Master’s Thesis University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Li, M. (2014). The college prime time: Development of students’ community involvement interests using the place attachment theory. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA. http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/20991/
Li, M., Frieze, I.H., Nokes-Malach, T., & Cheong, J. (2013). Do friends always help your study? Mediating processes between social relations and academic motivation. Social Psychology of Education, 16, 129-149. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11218-012-9203-5
Low, S.M., & Altman, I. (1992). Place attachment: A conceptual inquiry. In I. Altman, & S. M. Low (Eds.), Place Attachment, New York & London: Plenum Press, 12, 1-12.
Manzo, L.C. (2005). For better or worse: exploring multiple dimensions of place meaning. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 67–86. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S027249440500006X
Manzo, L.C. (2003). Beyond house and haven: toward a revisioning of emotional relationships with places. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 47- 61. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494402000749
Mazumdar, S., & Mazumdar, S. (2004). Religion and place attachment: a study of sacred places. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 385–397. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494404000465
McMillan, J. (1987). Enhancing college student’s critical thinking: A review of studies. Research in Higher Education, 26, 3-29. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00991931
Michelson, W. (1976). Man and his urban environment: A sociological approach, with revisions. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Osterman, K.F. (2000). Students’ need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research, 70, 323-326. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3102/00346543070003323
Pretty, G.H., Chipuer, H., & Bramston, P. (2003). Sense of place amongst adolescents and adults in two rural Australian towns: the discriminating features of place attachment, sense of community and place dependence in relation to place identity. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 273–287. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494402000798
Proshansky, H.M. (1978). The city and self-identity. Environment and Behavior, 10, 147-169. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0013916578102002
Riger, S., & Lavrakas, P.J. (1981). Community ties: patterns of attachment and social interaction in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 55-66. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1007/BF00896360
Rollero, C., & Piccoli, N.D. (2010). Place attachment, identification and environment perception: An empirical study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30,198-205. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494409001066
Sampson, R.J. (1988). Local friendship ties and community attachment in mass society: A multilevel systemic model. American Sociological Review, 53, 66-79. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2095822?seq=1/subjects
Sarmad, Z., Bazargan, A., & Hejazi, E. (2008). Research Methods in Behavioral Sciences. Tehran, Iran: Agah Press.
Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). Defining place attachment: A tripartite organizing Framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 1-10. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494409000620
Semken, S., & Freeman, C.B. (2008). Sense of place in the practice and assessment of place-based science teaching. Science Education, 92, 1042-1057. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sce.20279
Stedman, R.C. (2003a). Is it really just a social construction? The contribution of the physical environment to sense of place. Society and NaturalResources, 16, 671- 685. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08941920309189
Stedman, R.C. (2003b). Sense of place and forest science: toward a program of quantitative research. Forest Science, 49, 1-8.
Strange, C.C., & Banning, J.H. (2000). Educating by design: Creating ampus learning environments that work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Stokols, D., & Shumaker, S.A. (1981). People in places: a transactional view of settings. In J. Harvey (Ed.), Cognition, social behavior, and the environment, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Todd, S.L., & Anderson, L.S. (2005). Place attachment and Perceptions of Benefits Generated by the Future Tioughnioga River Trail Project. Proceedings of the 2005 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium.401-408.Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/8042
Turner, P.V. (1984). Campus: An American planning tradition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Twigger-Ross, C., & Uzzell, D.L. (1996). Place and identity processes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 139-169. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494496900171
Williams, D.R., & Roggenbuck, J.W. (1989). Measuring place attachment: Some preliminary results. Paper presented at the session on Outdoor Planning and Management, NRPS Symposium on Leisure Research, San Antonio, Texas.
Woldoff, R.A. (2002). The effects of local stressors on neighborhood attachment. Social Forces, 81, 87-116. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3086528?seq=1
Van Voorhis, J.L. (1995). Implementing cooperative structures to increase motivation and learning in college classrooms. Paper presented at the Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Columbia, SC.
Virden, R.J., & Walker, G.J. (1999). Ethnic/racial and gender variations among meanings given to, and preferences for, the natural environment. Leisure Sciences, 21, 219- 239. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/014904099273110
Zimring, C. (1982). The built environment as a source of psychological stress: Impacts of buildings and cities on satisfaction and behavior. In G. W. Evans (Ed.), Environmental stress, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 151-178.