ارائه مدل تحلیلی به‌منظور شناخت و ارزیابی مؤلفه‌های محیطی مؤثر بر افزایش تعاملات اجتماعی کودکان دارای اوتیسم در مراکز آموزشی با استفاده از فرآیند تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری معماری، باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری کاردرمانی، گروه کاردرمانی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توان‌بخشی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

4 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت خدمات بهداشتی و درمانی، عضو هیئت علمی و مربی سازمان پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی درسی، پژوهشگاه مطالعات آموزش و پرورش، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/aaud.2019.97361

چکیده

اختلال طیف اوتیسم1، اختلال فراگیر در رشد سیستم عصبی است که با نقص در تفکر، احساس و هیجان، زبان و توانایی ارتباط با دیگران و در نتیجه کاهش سطح تعامل مبتلایان همراه است. به‌منظور ایجاد یک فرآیند یکپارچه برای ارتقای تعاملات اجتماعی در کودکان اوتیسم، مداخلات درمانی باید با کمک طراحی معماری مناسب و با در نظر گرفتن نقش متغیرهای محیطی در برآورده ساختن نیازهای کودکان اوتیسم، صورت گیرد. لذا شناخت مؤلفه‌های معماری تأثیرگذار بر ارتقاء تعاملات اجتماعی کودکان اوتیسم و ارزیابی و اولویت‌بندی آن‌ها در طراحی معماری این مراکز، بااهمیت به نظر می‌رسد. هدف از مقاله حاضر، شناخت و ارائه مدل تحلیلی از شاخص‌های محیطی مؤثر بر ارتقاء تعاملات اجتماعی کودکان دارای اوتیسم، جهت اولویت‌بندی این شاخص‌ها در طراحی محیط‌های آموزشی می‌باشد. روش مورد استفاده در این مقاله، توصیفی-تحلیلی بوده و گردآوری اطلاعات در دو مرحله صورت گرفت؛ در مرحله اول پیشینه و مبانی نظری تحقیق با استفاده از مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای و اسنادی گردآوری و شناخت معیارها و زیر معیارهای اصلی حاصل شد؛ سپس با استفاده از معیارهای به‌دست‌آمده در مرحله اول، مدل تحلیلی چهار سطحی از شاخص‌های محیطی مؤثر بر افزایش سطح تعاملات اجتماعی کودکان دارای اوتیسم ارائه شد. پس ‌از آن پرسشنامه‌ای با استفاده از برنامه Expert Choice تهیه و میان 15 نفر از متخصصان شامل: روانشناسان، کار درمان‌ها و مربیان کودکان اوتیسم توزیع شد و به‌این‌ترتیب معیارها و زیرمعیارهای به‌دست‌آمده با استفاده از روش تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی و مقایسات زوجی رتبه‌بندی شد و در پایانی، تنها مدارس اوتیسم شهرهای قزوین، زنجان و تبریز انتخاب شدند و شرایط این معیارها در آن‌ها مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. در نهایت نتایج این تحقیق مشخص کرد، از میان اصول و معیارهای مورد بررسی،«سازمان‌دهی فضاها» و «عناصر طبیعی» با وزن‌های (42/0) و (32/0) بیشترین تأثیر را برافزایش سطح تعاملات اجتماعی کودکان دارای اوتیسم در محیط‌های آموزشی دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Presenting an Analytical Model for Recognizing and Evaluating the Environmental Indicators Influencing the Increase in social interactions of children with autism in Educational Centers Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Karbalaei Hosseini Ghiyasvand 1
  • Mahsa Sattari 2
  • Hossein Soltanzadeh 3
  • Mojgan Farahbod 4
1 Ph.D. of Architecture, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University Qazvin, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Student of Occupational Therapist, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
4 Ph.D. Student of Health Management Services, Faculty Member of Curriculum Planning and Research Organization, Education Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Autism spectrum disorder is a pervasive abnormality in nervous system accompanied by defections in thinking, emotion and feeling, speaking and the ability of communication with others hence leading to the reduction in the interaction level of individuals with autism. In order to create an integrated process for enhancing the social interactions in children with autism, the therapeutic interventions should be conducted by the assistance of proper architectural designing and through considering the role of environmental variables in satisfying the needs of children with autism. Thus, the recognition of the architectural indicators influencing the enhancement of social interactions in the children with autism and evaluation and prioritization of them in architectural designing of these centers seem important. The present article aimed at recognizing and offering an analytical model consisted of environmental indices influencing the enhancement of social interactions in children with autism for prioritizing these indices in designing of educational environments. a descriptive-analytical method was used in this study and the data has been collected in two stages: in the first stage, the study background and theoretical foundations have been compiled using library and documentary research following which the main scales and subscales were identified; then, using the scales found in the first stage, a four-level analytical model was offered comprised of the environmental indices influencing the increase in the social interaction in the children with autism. Afterwards, a questionnaire was prepared using Expert Choice program and it was administered to 15 specialists, including psychologists, occupational therapists and instructors of children with autism. Then, the obtained scales and subscales were rated using analytic hierarchy process and pairwise comparisons. In the end, the autism schools of Qazvin, Zanjan, and Tabriz were selected on which the criteria were evaluated. Finally, the study results indicated that “spatial organization” and “natural elements”, with weights equal to 0.42 and 0.32, respectively, had the highest effect inter alia the studied principles and scales on the enhancement on the social interaction level of children with autism in educational environments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • autism
  • Social Interaction
  • Space organization
  • Natural Environmental Elements
  • Sensory Integration Disorders

Anderson, J.M. (1998). Sensory Motor Issues in Autism, Therapy Skill Builders. The Psychological Corporation Texas, USA. 

Anous, I.H.I. (2015). The Impact of Interior Design in Educational Spaces for Children with Autism. American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences. 10(1), 90-101. http://iasir.net/aijrhassissue/aijrhassissue10-1.html

Baguley, D. (2013). Definitions, Epidemiology and Possible Mechanisms of Hyperacusis. Audiology Matters, 21(6), 70-71. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC539655/

Baker, AE., Lane, A., Angley, MT., & Young, RL. (2008). the relationship between sensory processing patterns and behavioral responsiveness in autistic disorder: a pilot study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(5), 867-875. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-007-0459-0

Beaver, CH. (2006). Designing Environments for Children and Adults with ASD. Second World Autism Congress& Exhibition, Cape Town, South Afric. https://www.autism.org.uk/~/media/nas/documents/working-with/creating-autism-friendly-places/designing_environments_for_children_adults_with_asd.ashx?la=en-gb

Beaver, CH. (2010). Designing for Autism. SEN Magazine, 46, 76-78. Available online: https://senmagazine.co.uk/articles/379-how-can-we-design-autism-friendly-schools.html

Bedell, GM., & Dumas, HM. (2004). Social Participation of Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injuries Discharged from Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Follow-up Study. Brain Injury, 18(1), 65-82. DOI: 10.1080/0269905031000110517

Boroushaki, S., & Malczewski, J. (2008). Implementing an Extension of the Analytical Hierarchy Process Using Ordered Weighted Averaging Operators with Fuzzy Quantifiers in ArcGIS. Computers and Geosciences, 34, 399-410. Doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2007.04.003

Brown, M., & Gordon, W. (1987). Impairment on activity patterns of children. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 68(12), 828-832. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2962558

Cherry, R. (2012). The Ideal Home for the Autistic Child: Physiological Rationale for Design Strategies. Autism Science Digest, Aavailable Online: https://purposefularchitecture.com/the-ideal-home/

Cobt, S., Xuan, H., & Rio, Ch. (2014). Setting Up Classroom Spaces that Support Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. (H. Mojahedi., & M. Hesam, Trsns.). Isfahan: Andishe Guya Publications. 

Cosbey, J., Johnston, S.S., & Dunn, M.L. (2010). Sensory Processing Disorders and Social Participation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64, 462-473. Doi: 10.5014/ajot.2010.09076

Delacato, CH. (1974). The Ultimate Stranger- The Autistic Child. Academic Therapy Publications, Novato, California, USA. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1975-01338-000

Denise, T. (2011). Color & Autism: Seeing Color through Autistic Children’s Eyes, Available Online: http://colorturners.blogspot.com/2011/03/color-autism.html

Hatami, R. (2012). Evaluation of Sensory Anxiety Response in Children with ADHD Referring to Tehran Clinics Based on Sensory Questionnaire. MSc Thesis, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran.

Humphreys, S. (2011). Architectural and Autism. Autism Europe Link, 55, 9-13. https://www.autismeurope.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/LINK-55-EN.pdf

Jay Cotagno, A. (2014). Group Interventions in the Treatment and Education of Autistic Children (with Emphasis on Social Skills and Competences). (S. Faramarzi., I. Shafiei & F. Ranjbar, Trsns.). Isfahan: Isfahan jihad daneshgahi Publications. 

Kanakri, Sh. (2017). Acoustic Design and Repetitive Speech and Motor Movement in Children with Autism.Environmental and Ecology Research, 5(1), 39-44. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2017.050105

Karimi, A R., Mehrdadi, N., Hashemian, S J., Nabibidhendi, G R., & TavakoliMoghadam, R. (2011). Using AHP for Selecting the Best Wastewater Treatment Process. Journal of Water & Wastewater. 21(4), 2-12. http://www.wwjournal.ir/article_1290.html

Khanjani, Z., & Khaknezhad, Z. (2016). The Effect of Inactive Music Therapy on Symptoms, Communication Deficit, and Social Interaction of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Child Mental Health. 3(3), 97-105. http://childmentalhealth.ir/article-1-105-fa.html

Khare, R., & Mullich, A. (2008). Educational Space for Children with Autism; Design Development Orocss. Building Comfortable and Liveable Environments for All. International Meeting Georgia tech University Atlanta USA, 15-16. https://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB8873.pdf

Linehan, J. (2008). Landscape for Autism: Guideline and Design of Outdoor Space for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. BSc Thesis, Landscape Architecture Program, University of California.

Long, E. (2010). Classroom Lighting Design for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Ms Thesis, Kansas State University.

MacAllister, K. (2010). The ASD Friendly Classroom Design Complexity, Challenge and Characteristics. Desgin Research Society Conference, Montreal, Canada, july7-9. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-ASD-Friendly-Classroom-Design-Complexity%2C-%26-Mcallister/e8b0ec77f2aaa67c41068b737f12d0f8485ddb62

Mccoy, M., Evans, J., & Gary, W. (2002). The Potential Role of the Physical Environment in Fostering Creativity, Creativity Research Journal. 14(3, 4), 409-426. Doi.org/10.1207/S15326934CRJ1434_11

Miller, A., Vernon, T., Wu, V., & Russo, K. (2014). Social Skill Group Interventions for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 1(4), 254-265. DOI: 10.1007/s40489-014-0017-6

Mojahedi, H., Ghasemi Sichani, M., Frouzande, E., & Bahramipour, M. (2014). Architecture and Autism Design Solutions for Educational Spaces. Isfahan: Khorasgan Branch Azad University. 

Mostafa, M. (2008). An Architecture for Autism: Concepts of Design Intervention for the Autistic User. Archnet-IJAR: Intenational Journal of Architectural Research. 2(1), 189-211. DOI: 10.26687/archnet-ijar.v2i1.182

Mostafa, M. (2014). Architecture for Autism: Autism ASPECTS in School Design. International Journal of Architectural Research. 8(1), 143-158. DOI: 10.26687/archnet-ijar.v8i1.314

Nagib, W. (2014). Toward a Therapeutic and Autism-Friendly Home Environment. A Thesis submitted to the school of Graduate Studies in Partial of the Fulfillment of the Requirment for the Degree Master of Arts, School of Geography and Earth Sciences, Mc Master University, Hamilton, Onatario. https://macsphere.mcmaster.ca/handle/11375/16447

Nazari, S., & karaminegad, R. (2015). Methods of Accommodation and Modification near Senses Processing Disorder in Children. Exceptional Education, 3(131), 39-46. http://exceptionaleducation.ir/article-1-534-fa.html

Nesaeyan, A., Kazemi, F., Pishyare, E., Hashemi Azar, J., & Farrokhi, N. (2013). Sensory Processing Patterns of Autistic Children from Teachers’ Point of View. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. 5(3), 653-661. DOI: 10.29252/jnkums.5.3.653

Organization for Autism Research. (2014). Life Journey Through Autism: A Guide to Safety. https://researchautism.org/resources/a-guide-to-safety/

Panacek, L., & Dunlap, G. (2003). The Social Lives of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Self-contained Classrooms: A Descriptive Analysis. Exceptional Children. 69(3), 333-48. Doi.org/10.1177/001440290306900305

Parham, L.D., & Mailloux, Z. (2010). Sensory Integration. In: Case-Smith, J., Allen, AS., & Pratt PN, Editors. Occupational Therapy for Children. 5. St, Louis, MO: Elsevier. 356–411. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&cluster=1189418731794651814

Paron- Wildes, AJ. (2013). Interior Design for Autism from Childhood to Adolescence. Wiley E-book Design Shorts.https://books.google.nl/books/about/Interior_Design_for_Autism_from_Childhoo.html?id=smzrAQAAQBAJ&redir_esc=y

Rimland, B. (1964). Infantile Autism. Appleton Century Crofts, New York, USA. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1964-35017-000

Sachs, N., & Vincenta T. (2011). Outdoor Environment for Children with Autism and Special Needs. Implications. 9(1), 1-8. Retrieved June 5, 2014, Aavailable Online: http://www.informedesign.org/_news/april_v09-p.pdf

Sadock, B.J., Sadock, V., & Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/clinical Psychiatry. 11, Illustrated, Wolters Kluwer Publition. https://www.amazon.com/Kaplan-Sadocks-Synopsis-Psychiatry-Behavioral/dp/1609139712

Samadi, S.A., Mahmoodizadeh, A., & McConkey, R. (2012). Anational Study of the Prevalence of Autism among Five-year-old Children in Iran. The National Autistic Socieety. 16(1), 5-12. DOI: 10.1177/1362361311407091

Sanchez, P., Vazquez, F., & Seeano, S.L. (2011). Autism and the Built Environment, Autism Spectrum Disorders, From Genes to Environment, prof. Tim Williams(ED), in Tech, Available from: www.intechopen/book/autism, spectrum, disordersfrom, genes to environment/autism and built environment

Scott, L. (2009). Designing Learning Space for Children on thr Autism Spectrum. Good Autism Practice. 10, 36-51.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233696730_Designing_learning_spaces_for_children_on_the_autism_spectrum

Shibata, S., & Suzuki, N. (2002). Effects of an Indoor Plant on Creative Task Performance and Mood, Scand g Psychol, 45(5). DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2004.00419.x

Tucker, K. (2014). The Best Room Colors for Children with Autism, Available Online: http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/room-colors-children-autism-10950.html

Vazquez, F.S., & Torres, A.S. (2013). Autism and Architecture, Recent Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorders.II(9), 177-186. Doi.org/10.5772/53679

Vogel, C. (2008). Classroom Design for Living & Learning with Autism. Autism Aspergers Digest, may-june. http://www.designshare.com/index.php/articles/classroom_autism/

White, B.B., & White, M.S. (1987). Autism from the Inside. Med Hypotheses. 24(3), 223-229. DOI: 10.1016/0306-9877(87)90068-5

Woodcock, A., Georgiou, D., & Jachson, J.A. (2013). Designing a Tailorable Environment for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders, Triannual Ergonomics Conference, Netherlands, July14. https://pureportal.coventry.ac.uk/en/publications/designing-a-tailorable-environment-for-children-with-autistic-spe

Zander, E. (2005). AUTISM FORUM Handikapp & Habilitering, Box 17519, 118 91 Stockholm 08-690 60 52, www.autismforum.se, Aavailable online: http://habilitering.se/sites/habilitering.se/files/introduktion_om_autism_persiska.pdf

Zardasht, E. (2001). Application of Hierarchical Analysis Process in Urban and Regional Planning. Journal of HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA MEMARI-VA-SHAHRSAZI. 10, 13-21. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285851870_The_use_of_hierarchy_analytical_process_in_urban_and_regional_planning