در جستجوی چارچوب یکپارچه ادراک فضا در مطالعات تعاملی انسان و محیط

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنرومعماری، دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/aaud.2019.97367

چکیده

فرآیند ادراک و شناخت محیطی، زمینه‌ساز رفتار در فضا بوده و تجربه مکان را برای انسان هموار می‌سازد؛ در نتیجه یکی از مهم‌ترین و ضروری‌ترین ابعادی است که در طراحی محیط باید به آن دقت شود. مروری توصیفی بر مطالعات انجام‌شده در حوزه شهرسازی نشان می‌دهد که تاکنون بررسی‌های انجام‌شده بیشتر ادراک فضا را بر پایه تصاویر ذهنی مورد سنجش قرار داده‌‌اند و در ادامه از نظریه چیدمان فضا نیز کمک گرفته شده‌ است. پژوهش حاضر به ‌دنبال آن است که با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی مطالعات انجام ‌شده در این حوزه را مورد ارزیابی قرارداده و به‌کمک حوزه‌های مطالعاتی مکمل، به چارچوبی جامع برای برداشت ادراک محیط دست‌یابد. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که از یک‌سو علی‌رغم آن‌که جنبه احساسی و عاطفی محیط بخشی از فرآیند ادراک بوده که درحوزه زیبایی‌شناسی به آن پرداخته می‌شود؛ اما در حوزه ادراک فضایی مورد سنجش قرار نمی‌گیرد. از سوی دیگر انگیزش‌ها، تجربه و آشنایی با محیط اگرچه یک ویژگی فردی است، اما از ویژگی‌های محیط قابل برداشت و ارزیابی است. بنابراین جنبه عاطفی و انگیزشی محیط را می‌توان به‌عنوان حوزه سوم به پژوهش‌های ادراک فضایی افزود و از نظریه‌های ترجیحات محیطی که شاخصی برای قضاوت‌های احساسی- انگیزشی محیط است، استفاده کرده تا به چارچوبی یکپارچه جهت سنجش ادراک فضایی در حوزه مطالعات شهری دست‌یافت. مقایسه چارچوب پیشنهادی با مطالعات و پژوهش‌های پیشین بر اساس شاخص‌های مورد تمرکز و به کمک ماتریس ارزیابی نشان می‌دهد که این چارچوب با دربرگیری سه دسته 1- ویژگی‌های شناختی مجزا، 2- ویژگی‌های رابطه‌ای فضا، 3- ویژگی‌های احساسی، نگاهی یکپارچه به تمامی ویژگی‌های محیطی در کنار ویژگی‌های فردی دارد که می‌تواند درک جامع‌تری از تأثیر محیط شهری بر استفاده‌کنندگان، در مطالعات شهری ایجاد نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

In Search for an Integrated Space Perception Framework in Human-Environment Interaction Studies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmat Paikan 1
  • Mojtaba Rafieian 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Urban Planning, Department of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares university, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate professor of Urban Planning, Department of Art and Architecture,Tarbiat Modares university, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The process of the environment perception and recognition sets the ground for the exhibition of behavior in space and paves the way for the human beings’ experience of the place; resultantly, it is one of the most important and most essential dimensions that have to be carefully taken into account in designing environment. A descriptive review of the studies done in the area of urbanism shows that the space perception based on mental images has been so far assessed and in the following, the space syntax theory was helped. The present study seeks to use the qualitative content analysis of the studies performed in this area and achieve a comprehensive framework for environmental perceptions by the aid of the supplementary study domains. The results indicate firstly that although affective and emotional aspects of the environment are part of the perception process and dealt with in the area of aesthetics, they are not evaluated in the area of the spatial perceptions; secondly, although motivations, experiences, and familiarity with the environment are individual properties, they can be also envisioned as characteristics of the environment to be perceived and evaluated. Thus, the affective and motivational aspects of the environment can be added as a third domain to the researches on the spatial perception studies so as to apply the theories on the environmental preferences that constitute an index for motivational-emotional judgments of the environment in achieving an integrated framework for assessing the spatial perceptions in the area of urban studies. Comparison the proposed framework with the prior studies and researches based on the concentrated indices and by the assistance of evaluation matrix indicated that the framework takes advantage of three sets of properties, namely A) separate cognitive properties; B) spatial relational properties; and, C) emotional properties, to adopt an integrated approach towards all the environmental properties alongside the individual properties that can create a more comprehensive perception of the effect of urban environment on the users in urban studies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Perception
  • Spatial Cognition
  • Environmental Preferences
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