معیارهای پدافند غیرعامل در طراحی معماری ساختمان های جمعی شهری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی قم، قم، ایران و عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان.

چکیده

ملاحظات دفاعی و نظامی از مهم ترین عوامل مؤثر در شکل گیری هرگونه سکونتگاه انسانی در طول تاریخ است و گستردگی پدیده شوم جنگ در طول تاریخ به حدی است که هیچ نقطه سکونتی بر روی کره زمین مصون از آن نبوده است. از اینرو آرامش کنونی به معنای تداوم دائمی آن نبوده و اهمیت حفظ و تقویت آمادگی دفاعی در تمامی ابعاد و از جمله در زمینه پدافند غیرعامل، فرآیندی پیوسته، توسعه پذیر و کاملاً بدیهی است. یکی از جنبه های مهم طراحی و توسعه شهری، تأکید و توجه به کمیت و کیفیت آسیب پذیری شهر در برابر آسیب های ناشی از حملات نظامی است و نیاز به توسعه و اجرای تدابیر پدافند غیرعامل به منظور کاهش آسیب پذیری شهرها در برابر صدمات جنگ ضرورت فزاینده ای پیدا کرده است. این مقاله با روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با تکیه بر گردآوری اطلاعات به روش کتابخانه ای، اینترنتی و تحقیقات میدانی به شناخت آسیب ها و تهدیدات ساختمان های جمعی شهری می پردازد و پس از دست یافتن به معیارهای فنی، با به کار بستن آ نها در مرحله طراحی معماری سطح امنیت شهروندان، در شرایط رویداد احتمالی جنگ های مدرن (موسوم به جنگ نسل ششم) افزایش یافته و به دنبال آن موجب ارتقاء توان دفاعی و سطح امنیت ملی در برابر تهدیدهای فزاینده محیط پیرامونی می شود. نتایج تحقیق معیارها و راهکارهایی است که به صورت مجزا برای هر کاربری خاص در ساختمان شهری بیان شده و به صورتی تدوین شده که در آن معیارها متناسب با ویژگی های جنگ های مدرن است، از مقیاس کلان (سلول شهری)به مقیاس خرد (تک بناها)می رسد و به تفکیک کاربری های منتخب ارائه شده است. همچنین هم بر بهسازی و هم بر طراحی معماری ساختما نهای عمومی )منتخب( تأکید دارد و بر تأمین مهم ترین و حیاتی ترین نیازهای زمان بحران تمرکز می نماید. در کنار موارد فوق بر سازماندهی، استفاده بهینه از امکانات، تأسیسات، فضاها و ساختما نها در شرایط اضطراری نیز توجه دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Passive Defense Criteria in Designing of Public Urban Buildings

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Behshid Hosseini 1
  • Mohsen Kameli 2
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Art, Tehran, Iran.
2 M.A. of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Qom Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran and Member of Young Researchers and Elite Club.
چکیده [English]

Political and military considerations are among the important factors affecting the formation of any human habitat in history while the spread of evil war is so extensive that no habitat on the planet earth is immune from it. Therefore, the current peace does not equal to its continuity and the importance of maintenance and improvement of defensive preparation in all dimensions, called the passive defense, is a continual, developable and very obvious process. One of the important aspects of civil design and development is the emphasis on the quality and quantity of city vulnerability against the harms caused by the military attacks. In order to decrease the cities' vulnerability against the war harms the process to develop and enforce the plans of passive defense is strictly necessary. With the descriptive analytical method and the reliance on gathering information in the library internet method and also the field researches, this article attempts to recognize the harms and threats on the city collective buildings after achieving the technical criteria, through:
• Utilizing Them in the Phase of Architecture Design;
• Investigating the Security Level of Citizen Increases in the Probable Situations of Modern Wars (So Called Sixth Generation Fights);
• Consequently the Improvement of Defensive Power and the National Security against
the Growing Threats of the Periphery.
The results of the research indicate that the architecture of public buildings should consider some special criteria to maintain its resistance and life and continuation of activities in crisis situations. The presented criteria to reform and design the public buildings are based on the following features:
1. The criteria are proportional to the characteristics of modern wars.
2. They reach from large scale (urban cells) to small scale (single buildings).
3. They are presented based on the separation of selected uses.
4. They insist on the reform and architecture design of public (selected) buildings.
5. They focus on the supply of the most important and vital needs of the crisis time.
6. They notice to the organization, best use of facilities, installations, spaces and buildings in emergency situations.
In the scale of collective buildings, the following recommendations and principles are presented based on the separation of uses:
The principles of passive defense in educational buildings:
• Schools
􀀋 Absence of Sensitive and Vital Centers till the 1000 Meters Ray
􀀋 Having Secure Rooms in all of the Stories
􀀋 Maximum Stories in Primary School Two Ones, in Guidance School Three Ones and in High School Four Ones
􀀋 Fast and Easy Access to Obvious Exits
􀀋 Accessibility to Vital Services such as Firefighting in Maximum 3 Minutes
• Universities
􀀋 Having Firm Shelters and Warehouses Beneath the Open and Green Spaces of Universities
􀀋 Having a Network of Secure Subsurface Accesses among the Aforementioned Shelters
􀀋 Radius of Access to the Subsurface Space of Universities in Maximum 500 Meters
􀀋 Possibility of Full Discharge of Population in Maximum 3 Minutes
The Principles of Passive Defense in Commercial Buildings:
• Having Multi-purpose Spaces
• Settling the Warehouses in Secure or Separable Places and with the Space From the Users Paths
• Having the Roadway and Sidewalk Paths Separately beside the Building
• Having the Automatic Systems of Fireproofing
• Having the Warning Systems with Full Acoustic Covering
The Principles of Passive Defense in Medicinal Buildings:
• Fabrication of Safe Warehouses Specific to Storing the Medicine and Emergency Facilities
• Easy Access to the Main City Roads
• Possibility of Fast and Easy Traffic of Relief Vehicles in the Hospitals
• Having Light and Heavy Transport Parking
• Having the Place of Helicopter Landing
• Visibility of Entrance
The Principles of Passive Defense in Metro:
• Maximum admissible radius of access to metro station is 500 meters.
• Emergency exits with depth of more than the depth of the gathering place of refugees
• Adequate width and the security of tunnels for the passing of people
• Having multiple ventilation channels in order to confront the fuel-air bombs
• Emergency self-sufficiency of ventilation systems of the network and the electricity of the trains and the lightning of the tunnels
• Having Emergency and independent communication and telecommunication to contact with the outside environment
• The principles of passive defense in Passenger terminal (airports, railway stations and the intercity bus terminals):
• Separation of Sensitive Places from Insensitive Ones (such as Runways, Watch Tower, Airplane Parking, Trains or Buses, Fuel Tanks)
• Camouflaging the Outdoor Area of Passenger Terminals with the Dense Vegetation Cover and also the Terrain
• Having Multiple and very Wide Essential Exits without the Step or Inconsistent Surface
• Legibility of the Paths, Entrances and Exits and the Creation of Multiple Emergency Exits in the Stories
• Having Subway Public Parking

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • passive defense
  • Passive Defense Criteria
  • Urban Public Buildings
  • Architectural Design

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