عنوان مقاله [English]
This paper tries to investigate the quality of pedestrian crossing overpass in area 3 of Tabriz Municipality from users' view points. Pedestrian crossing like other social phenomena in addition to their roles and functions are interesting for people, responsible organizations, planners and designers. This research has been carried out in a descriptivecross sectional surveying method. 144 pedestrians were selected in a simple random sampling. The questionnaire completions tools included 6 questions about the individual and social characteristics (having 4 special aims) about the quality of pedestrian crossing bridges according to the Likert scale. In order to study the relationship between some of the demographic attributes and the ranks of respondents we applied x2 test. The scores of attained ranks were analyzed using various descriptive statistical methods such as oneway ANOVA, and T-test, as well as the regression and Pearson correlation coefficients through the SPSS 13 software.
As the findings showed, from locating the land uses to settle the pedestrian bridges on the way of people, logical connection between land uses on both sides of the street, creating a space for pedestrians, Integrating electric stairs and elevator, even making commercial spaces in crowded bridges, are all important in the quality and efficiency of pedestrian bridges .Giving attention to the factors such as topography and artificial barriers can also encourage pedestrians to use the facilities for special assistance to pedestrians. The location of pedestrian bridges in relation to public transport stations can also increase the quality of their performance. According to studies, immunization of pedestrian bridges with the aim of reducing accidents, logical connection between the floor, existence of guards and fences, improving social supervision, creating vision in private hours, Confronting rainfalls and extreme cold weather of the area is further emphasized.
Also reviewing the quality and quantity of equipment and facilities of pedestrian bridges is necessary. In addition Installation of protective fencing on pedestrian bridges, providing suitable furniture such as trash, traffic signals and directional signs, traffic equipment for the disabled and the elderly are particularly emphasized. Covering the walls and roofed with pedestrian bridges are also commonly used against snow, rain and cold weather, and thus maintain the quality and efficiency of bridges. With washable material used in the body of pedestrian bridges and non-slip floor covering, stairs or ramp and resistance against fire and destruction, special floor for the blind people near the bridge entrances and exits can contribute to the quality and attractiveness of pedestrian bridges.
According to the field data, paying attention to Ventilation, controlling and preventing the possibility of throwing objects across the street, maintaining pedestrians against unfavorable climatic conditions and directing rainfalls and snow through the ceiling, frames and stairs would help to increase the quality of pedestrians’ bridges. Moreover, according to the aesthetic aspects and suitable architectural design as an identical sign or element of street perspective, using resistant ribbed materials, washable and replaceable and finally placing non-coplanar axes passing pedestrians along the shortest walking path leads more attractive pedestrian bridges.
The analysis of the scores of special aims showed that area 3 of Tabriz Municipality have higher percentage of pedestrian crossing bridges (59%) including 47 up to 91 bands, and partially suitable qualities (1.4%) have 1 to 46 bands and contain inappropriate qualities. 24.3% of the people who gained 92 to 140 scores included in appropriate level.
The difference in averages of sample individuals was significant on the basis of Friedman significance test. Results of x2 indicated that there is a significant difference between age groups, the marriage status, gender, education level, income level, the type of job, and the quality of pedestrian crossing bridges in area 3 of Tabriz Municipality (p<0.01). Also the obtaining results showed that there is significant correlation between the scores of sample population on the basis of responses to the questions on functions and variables such as immunity, and the accessibilities and the aesthetic aspects of the bridges in both areas, using Spearman, and Kendal correlation matrices.
Therefore, in order to the optimum use of facilities and traffic sources there is no other way than the adaptation of encouraging and guiding methods along with the improvement of the pedestrian crossing bridges qualities.
Charles W. H., Nicholas T.D. (2006). Time-Standards for Landscape Architecture Design & Construction Data.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Hamed, M. (2001). Analysis of Pedestrians’ Behavior at Pedestrian Crossings, Safety Science, 38, 63-82.
Hebert, M. (1993). The City of London Walkway Experiment, Journal of APA, 59(4), 443-449.
Holland, C., Hill, R. (2007). The Effect of Age, Gender and Driver Status on Pedestrians. Intentions to Cross the
Road in Risky Situations, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39, 224-237.
Keegan, O. Mahony, M. (2003). Modifying Pedestrian Behavior, Transportation Research Part A, 37, 889-901.
Le Corbusier. (2004). Athens Charter. (Mohammad Mansour Falamaki, Trans). 2nd Press. Tehran: Faza Press.
Martinez, K., Porter, B. (2004). The Likelihood of Becoming a Pedestrian Fatality and Drivers-Knowledge of
Pedestrian Rights and Responsibilities in the Common Wealth of Virginia, Transportation Research Part, 7, 43-58.
Moore, J.P., Allen, E.M., Sabroe, M.L. (1994). Urban Spaces: Design, Implementation, Management. (H. Rezayi
et al., Trans). Tehran: Public Administration and International Relations of Tehran.
Niazi, H., Mohammadzadeh, R. (2010). Evaluation of Environmental Impacts and Human Traffic within the City
of Tabriz. Geography and Planning, 15th year. 34, 191-216.
Niku M. H., Vazifehdoust, H., Khani, S. (2008). Evaluate and Analyze the Effectiveness of Pedestrian Bridges
within the City, Tehran Case Study. Howiat, 2nd year, 2, 3-12.
Ostrowski, W. (1992). Contemporary Town Planning (from the Origins to the Athens Charter) (L. Etezadi, Trans).
Tehran: University Publication Center.
Pakzad, J. (2007). A Guide to Urban Spaces Design in Iran. Tehran: Shahidi.
Peden, M. (2004). World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. Geneva, World Health Organization.
Research and Studies Center of Hamshahri Journal. (2008). Surveys of Respect of Tehran Citizens in Relation to
the Amount of Traffic Laws.
Rasanen, M., Lajunen, T., Alticafarbay, F., Aydin, C. (2007). Pedestrian Self-reports of Factors Influencing the Use
of Pedestrian Bridges, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39, 969-973.
Robertson K. A. (1993a). Pedestrians and the American Downtown, TPR, 64 (3), 273-386.
Robertson, K.A. (1993b). Pedestrianization Strategies for Downtown Planner’s Skywalks versusPedestrians Mall,
Journal of APA, 59(3), 361-369.
Road and Transport Research Centre, UK. (1996). Road Safety in Developing Countries (Advice for planners and
transportation engineers). (G. Ghazi Hessami, Trans.). Tehran: Tehran Transportation and traffic Organization.
Shahidi, M.H. (1988). An Introduction to Urban Transportation Systems Planning and Traffic Engineering. Tehran:
University of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University.
Simpson, G., Johnston, L., Richardson, M. (2003). An Investigation of Road Crossing in a Virtual Environment,
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35, 787-796.
Sisiopik, V.P., Akin, D. (2003). Pedestrian Behaviors and Perceptions towards Various Pedestrian Facilities: An
Examination Based on Observation and Survey Data, Transportation Research, Part F 6, 249-274.
Soltani, A., Mazini, S. (2010). Factors Affecting the Citizen’s Trenda to Use the Pedestrian Bridges in Iran. Geography
and Planning, 15th year. 32, 95-124.
Technical Assistance Office of Research and Technical Criteria. (1996) Pedestrian Facilities. 1, Tehran: The PBO
Velde, A.F., Kamp, J., Barela, J.A., Savelsbergh, G.J.P. (2005). Visual Timing and Adaptive Behavior in a
Road-crossing Simulation Study, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37, 399-406.
www.bohraan.com/NewsDetail (Medical examiner organization)
www.rahvar120.ir. (2006) Retrieved May 20, 2006.