مطالعه شباهت ها و تفاوت های موجود در عناصر فضایی-کارکردی مدارس علوم دینی تهران عهد قاجار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار باستان شناسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دوره دکتری باستا نشناسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران و مربی دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن، تهران، ایران

چکیده

بررسی سیر تاریخی آموزش و پرورش در ایران، نشان دهنده پیشینه طولانی آن از پیش از اسلام تا به امروز است. روند شکل گیری مدارس در ایران، به صورت رسمی و با ایجاد نظامیه ها در دوره سلجوقی آغاز شد و با اشکال دیگر و طی فراز و نشیب هایی تا به دوره قاجار نیز ادامه یافت. همزمان با توجه ای که در دوره قاجار به آموزش علوم دینی شد، مدارس علوم دینی نیز از اهمیت به سزایی برخوردار شدند؛ به گونه ای که در شهر تهران، به عنوان پایتخت در دوره یاد شده، بیشترین تعداد مدارس علوم دینی قابل مشاهده است. در مقاله حاضر نتایج حاصل از مطالعه و تحلیل عناصر فضایی-کارکردی هجده مدرسه علوم دینی دوره قاجار در شهر تهران، ارائه شده است. اهمیت پرداختن به این موضوع از آنجا ناشی م یشود که هویت هر فضای معماری بیش از هر عاملی به وسیله کارکردهای ویژه آن، از سایر فضاها متمایز می شود و فضای کالبدی آن نیز به طور معمول، با توجه به کارکردهای مزبور شکل م یگیرد. هر کارکرد نوین، تنها پس از تکوین زمینه ها و ضرورت های اجتماعی و تاریخی، در حیات اجتماعی ظاهر می شود و همراه با تولد خویش، فضای خاص خود را به تدریج شکل میدهد. در این مقاله تلاش بر این بوده است تا الگوی به کار رفته در شیوه های معماری این مدارس و شباهت ها و تفاوت های موجود در عناصر فضایی-کارکردی آ نها با توجه به نمونه های موجود استخراج شود. با بررسی های انجام گرفته به نظر می رسد، الگوی کاملاً یکسانی از دیدگاه معمارانه برای تمامی مدارس علوم دینی دوره قاجار شهر تهران نمیتوان تعیین کرد. به گونه ای که این موضوع حتی در مجموعه مدارس متعلق به یک دوره پادشاهی نیز قابل مشاهده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Similarities and Differences in the Spatial-functional Elements of Tehran’s Seminaries in Qajar Era

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Neyestani 1
  • Zeinab Akbari 2
1 Associate Professor of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanity, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Student of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

A survey in the history of education in Iran reflects its long history from pre-Islamic era
to the present time. The formation of schools began formally in Iran by establishment of
the Nizâmiyya in the Seljuk period and continued with other forms and change during the
Qajar period. As the Qajar paid serious attention to the religious education, the seminaries
were also the center of importance. Meanwhile, Tehran as the capital of Iran during the
Qajar period was the center for numerous seminaries. Until the year1625 AD, the capital
had just seven theological seminaries, among which six schools belonged to the Safavid
and one belonged to Zand era. In the Qajar 134-year period, 41 seminaries were built in
Tehran. All schools were located in the old texture of six districts of Tehran including Arg,
Udlajan, Sanglaj, Bazar, Doulat and Chalmeidan. Beginning of building the schools was
in the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar (1636- 1675 AD), the reason may be the neglect of
Aqa Mohammad Khan in the development of the city in his short reign (1634-1636 AD)
who spent his ruling period to fight the oppositions. The process of making seminaries
continued after the reign of Fath Ali Shah and in the 50-year reign of NaseredinShah
(1679-1738 AD) the highest numbers of seminaries were established in Tehran. However,
by beginning of modernism, paying attention to education and making new schools
such as Darolfonun in Iran, Based on this study, in the Qajar period 41 seminaries were
built just in Tehran. Despite the importance of seminaries in the Qajar period, a few
comprehensive researches on these architectural buildings model has been done. Previous
studies are limited to provide a general description of the case studies in these schools.
One of the explanations pointed out that the studies are only limited to the historical
and architectural characteristics and decoration of these schools individually. This article
with descriptive-analytical method is based on field research and library research. Thus,
we used first hand literature of Qajar era and the result of other studies for analyzing
the spatial and functional elements of these buildings. We identified 38 schools in the
Qajar dynasty using Tehran map and available sources. Investigating 18 schools showed
that spatial-functional elements of the seminaries have some architectural similarities and
differences. It is worth noting that the importance of addressing this issue is rooted in the
fact that identifying any architectural space is distinguished from other areas by its special
functions, more than anything else; and its physical space is usually formed regarding to
those functions. Any new function appears in social life, just after development of social
and historical contexts and needs, and after establishing, its own special space gradually
forms. In this work, we attempted to extract the pattern used in the architectural styles of  the schools as well as the similarities and differences in their functional-spatial elements,
regarding the available samples. Among the similarities, we refer to the use of brick as
the main material in schools. In addition, all of the schools were at a negative level of
difference regarding to the surrounding buildings; the reason can be considered privacy
and insisting on the principle of building. Another interesting similarity is observing the
principle of introspection in order to create a silent learning environment of the schools.
There are similarities as well in the main space-functional elements of the schools
including entrance space, yard, chamber, toilette, ablution and prayer places. However,
there are some differences in the details of the elements such as: removing the forecourt
of the complex from the entrance space, courtyards’ different shapes (rectangular and
octagonal), number of floors, the variation in the numbers of balconies (four porches,
three porches, two porches, one porch and no balcony) and the difference in the form
of arches used in covered porch, diversity in the number and geometry of the chamber,
courtyards and details off ablution and restrooms location. It seems that the differences
caused by makers’ and architects’ opinions as well as the lack of space. According to the
findings of the study, there is no single plan in the studied seminaries (table1); therefore,
it is not possible to achieve a common and completely similar architecture plan among the
seminaries of Tehran in Qajar era. The same is true about the schools of one reign.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tehran Schools
  • Functional and Spatial Elements
  • Qajar Dynasty
  • Islamic architecture

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