بازخوانی هندسه عناصر کالبدی یخچال‌های کرمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مرمت و احیا بناهای تاریخی، دانشکده حفاظت و مرمت، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه مرمت بنا، دانشکده حفاظت و مرمت، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

ساکنین مناطق گرم‌وخشک در تقابل با تابستان‌های سوزان به راه‌حلی رسیدند تا نوشیدن آب سرد و گوارا و نیز استفاده از یخ برای نگهداشت طولانی مواد غذایی را ممکن ساخت. این راه‌حل یخچال بود که با بهره‌گیری از دمای پایین در آستانه یخبندان شب‌های زمستانی، یخ می‌ساخت. ابعاد، اندازه، جهت و محل قرارگیری اجزای یخچال‌ها بر روی فرم نهایی آن‌ها به‌طور مستقیم تأثیرگذار است. در شهرهای مختلف، شکل‌های متفاوتی از یخچال‌ها وجود دارد. این تفاوت به‌دلیل فرم و هندسه عناصر و اجزاء آن‌ها است. با بررسی‌های انجام‌شده بر روی فرم و هندسه اجزای یخچال‌ها می‌توان علاوه بر شناخت جامع‌تر آن‌ها، گامی مؤثر در حفظ این دستاورد ایرانیان برداشت. همچنین با این پژوهش توانمندی معمار ایرانی در آشنایی با رموز هندسی به‌کاررفته در عناصر معماری آشکار خواهد شد. این مقاله باهدف بازخوانی ویژگی هندسی (پلان و نما) عناصر یخچال‌ها سعی دارد تا تأثیر آن‌ها بر فرم نهایی یخچال‌های کرمان را مورد تحلیل قرار دهد. پژوهشگران تابه‌حال بیشتر بر روی جنبه‌ شناخت یخچال‌ها و نحوه‌ یخ‌سازی در آن‌ها تحقیق کرده‌اند. در این مقاله برای اولین بار به جایگاه هندسه اجزاء یخچال در شکل‌گیری فرم نهایی آن‌ها پرداخته‌شده است. در پژوهش حاضر از روش تحقیق تحلیلی- توصیفی استفاده‌شده است. روش داده‌اندوزی ترکیبی از کتابخانه‌ای و میدانی می‌باشد. پس از برداشت تک‌به‌تک یخچال‌های موجود استان کرمان و پیاده‌سازی نما، پلان و مقاطع آن‌ها به تحلیل تطبیقی ویژگی هندسی آن‌ها پرداخته‌ و عوامل تأثیرگذار بر ویژگی آن‌ها شناسایی شد. با بررسی‌های انجام‌شده آشکار شد شکل دیوار سایه‌انداز متأثر از ایستایی، عوامل جغرافیایی و محل قرار گرفتن گنبد در پلان می‌باشد. چینش گنبد و دیوار سایه‌انداز براساس زاویه تابش خورشید منطقه صورت گرفته است که این چینش خود بر محل قرارگیری ورودی‌ها اثرگذار است. نوع اتصال دیوار سایه‌انداز به گنبد با توجه به محل قرارگیری اجزاء فرعی در پلان یخچال‌ها متفاوت بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rereading the Geometrical Physical Elements of Kerman Icehouses

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nooshin Nazarieh 1
  • Nima Valibeig 2
  • shahriar nasekhian 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Architectural and Urban Conservation, Faculty of Conservation and Restoration, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Architectural and Urban Conservation, Faculty of Conservation and Restoration, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Residents of the hot and dry climate, despite having long summers, have achieved a solution that makes drinking cold water throughout the year possible, as well as using ice to keep food intact. The solution was icehouse which makes ice in the low temperature of the desert winter night. Dimensions, size, direction, and setting of icehouses directly affect their final form. There are various forms of icehouses in different cities. This difference is due to the form, shape, and geometry of elements and their components. Offering remedial solutions require a sound and comprehensive recognition of the building. Unfortunately, nowadays icehouses have become a lost element in urban spaces due to lack of comprehensive research and proper presentation. This research redefines the part of the technology related to  Iranian past life and also provides a situation for reusing the technology. Surveying the typology of the icehouse and concerning the influence of geometry on  their construction in Kerman area would be an effective step in the conservation and restoration of this forgotten element in our traditional architecture and urban spaces. This paper aims to reread the geometrical features of icehouse elements (plan and elevation) and to analyze their impact on the final form of icehouses in Kerman. Researchers have previously increasingly researched the recognition and also the way of the ice making in ice houses before. In this paper, for the first time, the position of geometry in the elements of icehouses and their final form is discussed. The present research uses the analytical- descriptive method and data are collected using desk and survey research. Having scrutinized the icehouses of Kerman province and their elevation, plan, and section, the comparative uses of their geometric properties were analysed. Then the influencing factors were identified. The results showed the angle of sunshine, and wind direction are the factors that affect the geometry of the plan and direction of shading wall. In order to prevent sunlight during sunrise and sunset time, the adjunct  wall have been made to restrict the sunlight on the east and west of icemaking ponds by implementing a U-shaped wall that offers shades. Also, the architects used to connect the adjunct walls to act as a buttress, for greater stability of the main shady walls. The position of the dome in the plan also causes disconnection and continuity in the form of shady walls. In taller walls, the wall is divided into two parts with a dome in the center so that these two sides act as a buttress for the wall. The wall shapes an L form in contact with the dome and the dome prevents the walls to fall like a buttress. The shadow wall was designed in a vertical line in the direction of the prevailing wind in the cold season, in order to restrain the cold air. The location of the dome was also influenced by the shady wall in the general plan of the icehouse. As in some cities, the dome is located in the north of the shady wall, like the icehouses of Kerman, and in some cities such as Yazd and Kashan, the dome is in the south of the shady wall, which is due to the difference in the angle of the solar radiation. In the icehouses where the dome is located in the north, the entrances are in the east and west of the dome, and in the icehouses where the dome is located in the south of the shady wall, the entrances are located in the north and south. The advantage of locating the entrances in the east and west is the preventing the hot air to penetrate in the dome and locating these entrances in the shadow. Also, the dimension of the dome has a direct effect on the type of staircases inside the hole store. Thus, in the icehouses with a big opening dome, because of sufficient space, the staircase is circular, and in the small openings due to lack of space, there is a straight staircase. This research for the first time considers the typology of icehouses in Kerman based on geometry and analyzes the effect of this factor on each component of an icehouse in this area. In order to achieve the authentic form of these icehouses and also a principled restoration, a precise recognition of the geometry and also their forms are required. Today, with the expansion of the cities and setting of the icehouse in the downtown areas and due to the non-standard restorations, the main form of icehouses has changed which can be prevented by recognizing their forms in each region. A proper criterion for the classification of icehouses can be reached with recognizing the characteristics of icehouses of each region and also an attempt for recognition of latent meanings of these elements of traditional architecture to be utilized as a model in urban design. Studies in this research can be performed on icehouses of other cities in Iran, such as Kashan, Nain, Yazd.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Kerman’s Icehouses
  • Geometry in Architecture
  • Different Elements of Icehouses
  • Traditional Icehouses

Alaee, A., Ranjbar, S., & Sabzi, Z., (2015). Drinkable Water in Kavir Study of two Samples of Kavir Architectural Master Pieces (Cistern, Traditional Ice-house). Presented in the First National Conference of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Urban Enviroment, Hamedan, Iran.
Asqari Mogaddam, M. (2002). Ice- houses as Forgotten Near-city Phenomena. Geography Teaching Growth Magazine, 103, 48-52.
Bahadori Nejad, M., & Dehqani, A. (2011). Natural and Traditional Ice- making in Iran (sixth part). Air-conditioning Magazine, 100, 39- 47.
Charden, J. (1976). Charden Travelogue. (M. Abbasi, Trans.). Tehran, Iran: Amir Kabir publication.
Dehqan Mehrjerdi, E. (2011). Meibod in History Mirror (Excursion in History and Culture of Meibod People). Semnan, Iran: Hable rood publication.
Dehqani, A. (2010). Water in Iran Plateau: Aqueduct, Cistern, Ice- house. Tehran, Iran: Yazda publication.
Ganji, M.H. (2004). Thirty-two Geographical Article. Tehran, Iran: Sohab Institute of Geography, 105-111.
Ghobadian, V. (2006). The Climatic Analysis of the Traditional Buildings in Iran. Tehran, Iran: University of Tehran.
Hourkard, B., & Pierberto, M. (1996). Traditional Ice-houses of Iran Plateau. (A. Sarv qad Moghadam, Trans.). Geographical Research Qwarterly, 37, 56-65.
Janeb-ellahi, M. (2006). Forty Articles on Meibod Ethnography. Tehran, Iran: Ganje Honar publication.
Jorgensen, H. (2012). Ice Houses of Iran, How, Where, Why. California: Mazda Publishers.
Mokhlesi, M. (1996). Old Ice-houses as Forgotten Architectural Master Pieces. Presented in the First Congress of Iran Architecture and Civil Engineering, Arq Bam- Kerman, Iran Cultural Heritage Publication, Iran Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization, 685-596.
Mousavi, Q. (2005). Traditional Ice-houses of Abhar City and Way of Ice-formation in Them. Farhang Mardom Magazine, 10, 33-36.
Papeli Yazdi, M., & Labbaf Khaniki, M. (1999). Ice- house and Production of Artificial Ice. 2nd Regional Conference of Climatic Change. Country Weather Organization, Zanjan, Iran.
Pirnia, M. (1995). Article of Chefds and Vaults. Asar Quarterly, 24, 13-14.
Poulak, J. (1990). Poulak Travelogue. (K. Jahandari, Trans.). Kharazmi publication, Tehran, Iran.
Pouya, A. (1993). Archaeological Face of Meibod City (Historical Study of a Structure and Building a Desert City). Senobar Publication, Yazd, Iran.
Rafie Sereshki, B., Rafizadeh, N., & Ranjbar Kermani, A. (2004). Iran Mehrazi (Architecture) Culture. Tehran, Iran: Center of Building and House Research.
Richards, F. (2001). Fred Richards Travelogue. (S. Mahindokht, Trans.). Scientific and Cultural Publications, Tehran, Iran.
Shahri, J. (1991). Social History of Tehran in 13th Century (Life, Enterprise). Orman Publication, Tehran, Iran.
Shamaie, A., & Pour Ahmad, A. (2005). Improvement and Urban Renewal from the Point of View of Geography. University of Tehran Publisher, Tehran, Iran.
Silvanieh, S., Daneshjoo, k., & Farmahin Farahani, S. (2013). Geometry in Pre-Islamic Iranian Architecture and its Manifestation in Contemporary Iranian Architecture. Naghshe-Jahan Magazine, 1, 55-66.
‎Smith, A. (1926). ‎Blind White Fish in Persia‬. (M. Nabizadeh, Trans.). Naghshe-Jahan Publisher, Isfahan, Iran.
Tehrani, F. (1993). Understanding the Goals of the Islamic Architect. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Behshti University.
Zareei, A., & Zarjabad, H. ( 2007). Study on Water Structures of Birjand City; Case Study: Ice-houses. Cultural and Social Studies Quarterly of Khorasan, 2, 5-16.