چارچوب تحلیل ظرفیت کلان‌شهری در راستای دستیابی به توسعه دانش‌بنیان، مورد مطالعاتی: کلان‌شهر تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه برنامه‌ریزی و طراحی شهری و منطقه‌ای، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد برنامه ریزی منطقه‌ای، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

جهان در واپسین دهه‌‌های قرن‌بیستم، ناشی از پیشرفت‌های علمی و ظهور الگوواره‌ نوین مبتنی بر فن‌آوری‌های اطلاعاتی و ارتباطی، وارد فرآیند گذار ساختاری شده‌است. ظهور جامعه‌ شبکه‌ای و پدیده‌ اقتصاد دانش‌بنیان، که به اهمیت اقتصادی تولید، تجاری‌سازی و استفاده از دانش مربوط می‌شود، چشم‌انداز نوینی تحت عنوان «توسعه دانش‌بنیان‌شهری» را پیش‌‌روی برنامه‌ریزی و توسعه شهری گشوده‌است. از بارزترین ویژگی این گذار می‌توان به تغییر نقش ‌شهرها و کلان‌شهرهای ‌رقابت‌پذیر در راستای ایفای نقش ‌‌دانشی در اقتصاد جهانی اشاره‌ کرد. این گرایش جدید، در کنار تحولات سال‌های ‌اخیر در سیاست‌های ‌کلان‌ ایران، کلان‌شهرهای‌ کشور و به‌ویژه تهران را نیز ناگریز از گذار به سوی اقتصاد دانش‌بنیان کرده ‌است. در این‌راستا، و از آن‌جا که تشخیص وضعیت و ظرفیت‌سنجی توان کلان‌شهرها در راستای تحقق هر هدفی نخستین و اصلی‌ترین گام در فرآیند برنامه‌ریزی به شمارمی‌رود، پژوهش حاضر بر آن ‌است تا با شناسایی و تحلیل ظرفیت توسعه‌ دانش‌بنیان کلان‌شهر‌ تهران و در نهایت ارائه مدل‌توسعه‌ ‌دانش‌بنیان، کلان‌شهر را در‌ راستای ارتقاء رقابت‌پذیری یاری ‌کند. به‌منظور ظرفیت‌سنجی توسعه‌دانش‌بنیان کلان‌شهر تهران، در مرحله ‌نخست با استفاده از تحلیل ‌قیاسی، ظرفیت توسعه‌دانش‌بنیان کلان‌شهر تهران در مقایسه با 14 کلان‌شهر دیگر کشور از نظر درون‌دادها و برون‌دادهای توسعه‌ ‌دانش‌بنیان شهری مورد ‌بررسی قرار‌ گرفته ‌است. برون‌داد این تحلیل تفاوت قابل‌توجهی را میان میزان دانش‌بنیانی ‌و سطح قابلیت‌های توسعه‌‌دانش‌بنیان ‌کلان‌شهر تهران با سایر کلان‌شهرهای‌ کشور نشان ‌می‌دهد. سپس ظرفیت ‌درونی کلان‌شهر تهران جهت دستیابی به توسعه‌ ‌دانش‌بنیان از طریق مقایسه‌ پیشنهادهای موجود در طرح راهبردی‌- ساختاری تهران با راهبردهای مورد ‌استفاده در جهان سنجیده‌ شده ‌است. در نهایت نیز به منظور تبیین چرایی توسعه‌دانش‌بنیان کلان‌شهرهای کشور از مدل تحلیل ‌مسیر استفاده ‌شده‌‌است. آزمون مدل ‌نظری پیشنهادی ‌پژوهش، که در نهایت منجر به ارائه مدل ‌تجربی توسعه‌ دانش‌بنیان کلان‌شهرهای ایران شد، مؤید اثرگذاری سه درون‌داد اصلی سرمایه ‌علمی‌-‌پژوهشی، سرمایه پشتیبان و سرمایه عمومی شهر‌ دانش بر توسعه‌ دانش‌بنیان کلان‌شهری ایران ‌است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Framework for Analyzing Metropolitan Capacities to Achieve Knowledge-based Development; Case Study: Tehran Metropolis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahar Nedae Tousi 1
  • Borhan Amjadinia 2
1 Assistant Professor of Urban and Regional Planning and Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 M.A. of Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In the late twentieth century, the world entered the structural transition process due to scientific advances and the advent of new ICT-based paradigms. The emergence of the network society and the “knowledge-based economics” phenomenon, which relates to the economic importance of knowledge production, commercialization, and utilization, has raised a new perspective called “knowledge-based urban development” in urban planning and development. This transition is greatly characterized by shifting the role of competing cities and metropolises to play a knowledge role in the global economy. This new trend, along with the recent developments in Iran’s macro policies, has also made the metropolises of Iran, especially Tehran, to inevitably move towards the knowledge economy. Therefore, since the recognition of the status quo and capacity assessment of metropolitan areas are the first and foremost step in the planning process, the present study aims to identify and analyze the capacity of Tehran metropolis for knowledge-based development and finally to develop a knowledge-based development model to help the metropolis to improve its competitiveness. In order to assess the capacity of Tehran metropolis for knowledge-based development, first, its capacity is investigated compared to the other 14 metropolises in Iran in terms of the input and output of knowledge-based urban development, using a comparative analysis. The outcome of this analysis reveals a significant difference between the Tehran metropolis and other Iranian metropolises in capacity for knowledge-based development. Then, the capacity of Tehran metropolis for achieving knowledge-based development is measured by comparing the existing proposals presented in the strategic-structural plan of Tehran with the strategies used in the world. Finally, a path analysis model was used to explain the reason for the knowledge-based development of Iranian metropolises. Testing the theoretical model proposed in the present study, which eventually leads to the development of an empirical knowledge-based development model for Iranian metropolises, confirms the impact of three main inputs on the knowledge-based development of Iranian metropolises: science-research capital, support capital, and general capital of knowledge city

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Knowledge-based Urban Development
  • Capacity Assessment
  • Science-Research Capital
  • Public Capital Of Knowledge City
  • Tehran Metropolis
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