ارزیابی ترجیحات بصری در نماهای مسکونی، مورد مطالعاتی: دوازده خانه تاریخی تبریز

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران .

2 دکتری معماری و استاد تمام وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری، تهران، ایران.

3 دکتری معماری، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

شناخت و سنجش ویژگی‌ها و مؤلفه‌های بصری در فرآیند ادراک امر محسوس، راهی برای ارزیابی زیبایی‌شناسی یک پدیده می‌باشد. در برخورد با یک بنای معماری، نمای آن اولین تأثیر را در فرآیند تجربه زیبایی‌شناختی مخاطب دارد. مؤلفه‌های کالبدی و کیفیت‌های بصری متفاوتی در ایجاد نمای معماری نقش دارند، استخراج ترجیحات بصری در نماهای معماری و بررسی مؤلفه‌ها و عناصر شکل‌دهنده این ترجیحات می‌تواند به ایجاد معیارهایی در ارزیابی زیبایی‌شناسی منجر شود. درنتیجه مطالعه این مؤلفه‌های بصری در نماهای معماری و بررسی ترجیحات زیبایی‌شناسی آن‌ها از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. هدف از این پژوهش، ارزیابی ترجیحات زیبایی‌شناسی مخاطب از کیفیت‌ها و مؤلفه‌های بصری سازنده نمای خارجی بناهای مسکونی می‌باشد. برای رسیدن به این هدف، در بخش نظری پژوهش با استفاده از روش تحلیلی-توصیفی، مفاهیم و رویکرد نظری تحقیق بیان شده است. در این قسمت با بررسی پیشینه پژوهش و بیان مفاهیم مورد نظر در پژوهش، یک ساختار در زمینه تحقیقات و ارزیابی‌ها پیرامون مؤلفه‌های بصری معرفی و چارچوب نظری پژوهش ارائه شد. در بخش عملی به وسیله آزمون‌های ترجیحاتی، رابطه بین مؤلفه‌های بصری مورد تحقیق و ترجیحات زیبایی‌شناسی نماهای دوازده خانه تاریخی تبریز از 320 نفر آزمون‌شونده، اندازه‌گیری و نمرات ترجیحاتی آزمون‌شوندگان با نرم‌افزار SPSS به‌صورت توصیفی و استنباطی تحلیل و تفسیر شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد دو مؤلفه بصری تنوع ساختار عناصر معماری و سطوح تشکیل‌دهنده نماهای معماری، به همراه پیچیدگی (غنای بصری) و استفاده از خطوط منحنی تأثیر بیشتری نسبت به سایر کیفیت‌ها و مؤلفه‌های بصری نماهای معماری دارند. توجه و بررسی مؤلفه‌های بصری همچون ساختار عناصر معماری و سطوح مختلف نما، می‌توانند به‌عنوان معیارهایی در ارزیابی‌ها و تحلیل‌های زیبایی‌شناسی از نماهای معماری مسکونی استفاده شود. این معیارها همچنین می‌توانند در طراحی‌های معمارانه در نمای ساختمان‌ها نیز کاربرد داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of The Visual Preferences in the Residential Façades; Case study: Tabriz Twelve Historical Houses

نویسندگان [English]

  • Massud Wahdattalab 1
  • Ali Yaran 2
  • Hamed Mohammadi Khoshbin 3
1 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Professor of Architecture, The Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Tehran, Iran
3 PH.D. of Architecture, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

The recognition and evaluation of the visual features and components in the perception process is a way for the aesthetic evaluation of a phenomenon. When facing an architectural building, its façade has the first impact on the observer's aesthetic experience process. Various physical components and visual qualities play a role in creating the architectural façade. Extraction of the visual preferences in the architectural façades and investigation of the forming components and elements of these preferences can lead to developing the criteria in the aesthetic evaluation. Consequently, studying these visual components in the architectural façades and investigating their aesthetic preferences are of significant importance. The current study aims to evaluate the observer’s aesthetic preferences of visual qualities and components that forming the external façades of the residential buildings. The theoretical concepts and approaches were presented to reach the research purpose in the theory section of the research using a descriptive-analytical method. By studying the research background and explaining the considered research concepts in this part, a structure of the studies and evaluations on the visual components was introduced, and the theoretical framework was presented. In the practical section, using the preference tests, the relationship between the visual components and aesthetic preferences of the façades of twelve historical houses of Tabriz was measured using 320 respondents. Also, the preference scores of the respondents were analyzed by a descriptive-inferential method using SPSS software. The research results showed that two visual components of the diversity of the structure of the architectural elements and the forming levels of the architectural façades, as well as complexity (visual richness) and using the curved lines, have more impact than other visual qualities and components of the architectural façades. Considering and investigating the visual components, including the structure of the architectural elements and different levels of the façade can be used as criteria in the aesthetic evaluations and analysis of the façade of the residential buildings. These criteria can also be applied in architectural designs of the buildings’ façade.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aesthetic Preferences
  • Visual Components
  • Architectural façades
  • Empirical Aesthetics
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