بررسی و تحلیل چگونگی تطابق عوامل کالبدی با ابعاد ادراکی-شناختی حس مکان از منظر فرهنگی- اجتماعی، مورد مطالعاتی: فضاهای عمومی شهر کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرمانشاه، کرمانشاه، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرمانشاه، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

در شرایط جامعه امروز به‌ویژه ضعف کیفی فضاهای عمومی، توجه به رابطه انسان- محیط در قالب دانش روانشناسی محیطی و تحقق مراتب بالای حس مکان به‌واسطه فرآیند طراحی معماری از اهمیت بسیاری برخوردار می‌باشد. از آنجایی که چگونگی ادراک محیطی و ایجاد حس مکان در هر فرهنگ، متفاوت از دیگری است طراحی در هر محیط مستلزم شناخت فرهنگ حاکم خواهد بود. بنابراین سؤال اصلی تحقیق حاضر این است که عوامل فرهنگی- اجتماعی چه تأثیری در فرآیند ادراک و شناخت مؤلفه‌های کالبدی حس مکان در فضاهای عمومی داشته و چگونه می‌توان تأثیر آن‌ها را در قالب یک مدل تبیینی، بررسی نمود؟ لذا هدف پژوهش، بررسی چگونگی تحقق حس مکان در فضاهای عمومی با توجه به متغیر تعدیل‌کننده فرهنگ و تطابق عوامل کالبدی این فضاها با ابعاد ادراکی- شناختی ذهن و ارائه نتیجه به صورت یک مدل بوده که در قالب یک مطالعه موردی، اعتبارسنجی می‌شود. این تحقیق از حیث هدف، از نوع توسعه‌ای- کاربردی می‌باشد که در مرحله اول با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی پیش رفته و با کنکاش در نظریه‌های محققان پیشین به یک مدل تبیینی می‌انجامد. در مرحله بعد با راهبردی پیمایشی و سنجش نظر افراد در باب نمونه‌های موردی به‌ صورت آماری تکمیل‌ می‌شود. نتایج پژوهش، چگونگی شکل‌‌گیری فرآیند حس مکان و تحقق مراتب بالای آن از لحظه حضور فرد در مکان را با تأکید بر تأثیر جریان‌های فرهنگی- اجتماعی به شکل یک نمودار منعکس می‌کند که در آن، تأثیر خاص بر نحوه ادراک کالبد متناسب با ویژگی‌های شخصیتی مختلف مخاطبان باعث ایجاد سطوح مختلفی از حس مکان در فضاهای عمومی می‌شود. بنابراین با در نظر گرفتن تأثیر مؤلفه فرهنگ، می‌توان به درجات متفاوت رجحان عوامل کالبدی نزد کاربران محیطی هر منطقه خاص دست یافت و با لحاظ تمهیدات حاصل از تحلیل آن‌ها در فضاهای عمومی که اهمیت آن‌ها در اجتماعات انسانی غیرقابل انکار است می‌توان در راستای محقق نمودن مراتب بالایی از حس مکان، افزایش کیفیت زندگی و جبران بحران هویت جوامع امروزی اقدام نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigate and Analyze the Adaptation of Physical Factors with Perceptual-Cognitive Dimensions of the Sense of Place in Public Spaces from Socio-Cultural Perspective; Case Study: Public Spaces in Kermanshah City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parya Khandan 1
  • Hossein Rezaei 2
1 M.A. of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Paying attention to the human-environment relationship in environmental psychology and realizing the higher levels of sense of place through the architectural design process enjoy significant importance in the current society, especially due to the poor quality of the public spaces. Since the environmental perception and creating the sense of place are different in each culture, designing in each environment requires understanding the dominate culture. Therefore, the main question of the research is: How do the socio-cultural factors affect the perception and recognition process of the sense of place physical components in public spaces? Also, how can their effects be studied in an explanatory model? Therefore, the current study aims to investigate the realization of the sense of place in public spaces, considering the culture as a moderator variable and adapting the physical factors of these spaces with the perceptual-cognitive aspects of the mind and present the result as a model. Afterward, this model would be validated in case studies. The current research is applied-developmental one in terms of purpose. In the first phase, the research is conducted using the analytical-descriptive method and results in an explanatory model by investigating the previous researchers’ theories. In the next stage, the current study is completed statistically using the field approach and surveying the opinions of the users in the case studies. The research results reflect how the sense of place process is formed and how its higher levels are realized from the moment an individual is in the place with an emphasis on the impact of the socio-cultural mainstreams in an explanatory model. In which, the specific impact on perceiving the physique appropriate to the various personal features of the users results in creating different levels of sense of place in public spaces. Therefore, considering the effect of the cultural component, it is possible to achieve different degrees of physical factors preferences in users of each specific region. Then, by considering the cultural factors, users' preference of physical factors of the place in any region, can be reached. Also, with concerning the analysis result, and applying them in public spaces, it is possible to achieve a high level of sense of place, increase the quality of life and compensate for the identity crisis of today's societies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sense of Place
  • Environmental Perception
  • Perceptual-Cognitive Dimensions
  • Physical factors
  • socio-cultural factors
Ahmadi, P., Babashahi, J., & Khodashenas, L. (2012). Considering the Relationship between Personality Factors and Entrepreneurship: A Research about the Personnel of Sadad Informatics Corporations. Researches of Management Organizational Resources, 1(3), 1. http://magiran.com/p1014990
Altman, I., & Low, S.M. (1992). Place Attachment. New York: Plenum Press.
Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Calthrope, P. (1993). The Next American Metropolis. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
Daneshpour, A., & Charkhchyan, M. (2007). Public Spaces and Factors Affecting Collective Life. Bagh-e Nazar, 7, 19-28. www.bagh-sj.com/article_64_258696c6b2c683053175440343f21fa7.pdf
Falahat, M. (2006). The Sense of Place and Its Factors. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary VA Shahrsazi, 25, 57-66. https://journals.ut.ac.ir/article_12321_573ebafd4063590e0b1c43953f8a6e63.pdf
Golkar, K. (2000). Components of Urban Design Quality. Soffeh, 11(32), 38-65. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=49054
Hassani Bafrani, T. (2011). Man’s Essence and His Transcendental Needs, from Victor Frankel’s Viewpoint. Ravanshenasi Va Din, 3(4), 5. http://magiran.com/p871991
Hayden, D. (1995). The Power of Place: Urban Landscape as Public History. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Heidegger, M. (1971). Building, Dwelling, Thinking. In A. Hofsdater (Ed.), Poetry, Language and Thought. New York: Harper & Row.
Jorgensen, B., & Stedman, R. (2001). Sense of Place as an Attitude: Lakeshore Owners Attitudes toward Their Properties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21(3), 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.2001.0226
Kalali, P., & Modiri, A. (2012). Explanation of the Role of Meaning Component in the Process of Creating the Sense of Place. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary VA Shahrsazi, 17(2), 43-52. DOI: 10.22059/JFAUP.2012.30159
Kashi, H., & Bonyadi, N. (2013). Stating the Model of Identity of Place-Sense of Place and Surveying its Constituents Case Study: Pedestrian Passage of Shahre Rey. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary VA Shahrsazi, 18(3), 43-52. DOI: 10.22059/jfaup.2013.51317
Khodapanahi, M.K., & Iravani, M. (2000). Sensation and Perception Psychology. Tehran: Samt Publication.
Leighton, A.G., & Hughes, J.M. (2005). Cultures as a Causative of Mental Disorder. The Milbank Quarterly, 83(4), 446-470. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2005.00424.x
Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Nasir Salami, M., & Sohanigar, S. (2013). Strategies to Improve the Quality of Human Environment, Interaction with the Approach of Environmental Psychology. Psychological Research Journal, 19, 79-100. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=228184
Pakzad, J., & Bozorg, H. (2016). An Introduction to Environmental Psychology for Designers. Tehran: Armanshahr Publication.
Partovi, P. (2004). Place and Placelessness, a Phenomenological Approach. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary VA Shahrsazi, 14, 40. http://magiran.com/p114376
Rapoport, A. (1990). The Meaning of the Built Environment: A Nonverbal Communication Approach. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Relph, E. (2007). Sprit of Place and Sense of Place in Virtual Realities. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology, 10(3), 17-25. DOI: 10.5840/techne20071039
Rezaei, H., Keramati, G., & Dehbashi Sharif, M. (2018). A Psychological Meta-Analysis of the Form-Function Relation in Architectural Design Process from the Perspective of Creativity. Quarterly Journal of Innovation and Creativity in Human Sciences. 8(2). 265-298. http://journal.bpj.ir/article_545200_8db70f9296081c307745bf1e84676755.pdf
Rezaei, H., Keramati, G., Dehbashi Sharif, M., & Nasir Salami, M.R. (2018). A Schematic Explanatory Pattern for the Psychological Process of Achieving Environmental Meaning and Actualizing Sense of Place Focusing on the Intervening Role of the Perception. Bagh-e Nazar, 15(65), 49-66. DOI: 10.22034/bagh.2018.74083
Rezaei, H. (2019). Human and the Environment (Environmental Psychology). Master of Architecture Course Notes, Kermanshah Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning.
Rezaei, H., Keramati, G., Dehbashi Sharif, M., & Nasir Salami, M.R. (2020). Architectural Creativity as Architecture of Creativity; Analysis and Rating of the Physics-Based Psychological Effects of the Sense of Place on Environment Users’ Creativity; Case Study: Higher Education Institutions of Kermanshah. Armanshahr Journal of Architecture, Urban Design & Urban Planning, 13(31), 79-96. DOI: 10.22034/AAUD.2020.133277.1550
Salvesen, D. (2002). The Making of Place. Urban Land, 61(7), 36-41. https://matr.net/news/the-making-of-place/
Shahidi, S., Nejati, V., & Kamari, S. (2015). The Iranian Personality: Evidence of Cultural Differences of Personality Traits. RBS, 13(4), 525-531. http://rbs.mui.ac.ir/article-1-427-en.html
Shamai, S. (1991). Sense of Place: An Empirical Measurement. Geoforum, 22(3), 347-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7185(91)90017-K
Steele, F. (1981). The Sense of Place. Boston: CBI Publishing Company.
Stefanovic, I.L. (1998). Phenomenological Encounters with Place: Cavtat to Square One. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18(1), 31-44. https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.1998.0062
Tibbalds, F. (1992). Making People Friendly Towards: Improving the Public Environments in Towns and Cities. Harlow: Longman Press.
Worpole, K. (1992). Towns for People: Transforming Urban Life. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Zarani, F., Behzadpoor, S., & Babaeai, Z. (2017). Analysis of the Role of Culture in Psychopathology. Frooyesh, 6(1), 191-224. http://frooyesh.ir/article-1-224-en.html