ارزیابی ادراک بصری متخصصان و غیرمتخصصان فضاهای شهری بومی شهر دزفول بر مبنای تئوری گشتالت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول، دزفول، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول، دزفول، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول، دزفول، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول،‌ دزفول، ایران.

چکیده

هر اثر هنری بعد ادراکی متفاوتی دارد که به برخی از موضوعات مانند درک زیبایی‌شناختی و دانش کاربران ارتباط دارد. نکته مهم نحوه دستیابی کاربران به این امر و تفاوت بین درک معماری و کاربران است که مسئله‌ای بحث برانگیز در معماری مدرن است و باعث اختلاف‌نظر بین کاربران و طراحان می‌شود. با توجه به اهمیت معماری بومی و لزوم سازگاری الگوی آن با معماری مدرن، این مقاله با هدف ارزیابی اصول بصری گشتالت و زیبایی‌شناسی بین کاربران و طراحان (متخصصان و غیرمتخصصان) در منطقه سرزنده سنتی شهر دزفول،‌ ایران انجام شده است. روش این تحقیق با روش‌های توصیفی- پیمایشی و مطالعات میدانی و کتابخانه‌ای ترکیب شده است. بدین منظور، جهت کمی‌سازی تفاوت‌ها، یک مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختاری با استفاده از یک پرسشنامه هدفمند میان متخصصان و غیرمتخصصان توزیع شد و با توصیف و تجزیه و تحلیل این داده‌ها توسط نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS، ریشه تفاوت‌ها بین این دو گروه مشخص شد. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها، علاوه بر جستجو، مطالعه و حضور در محل، از دو نوع پرسشنامه بین کاربران و طراحان استفاده شده است. نتیجه این مطالعه نشان می‌دهد که در شهر باستانی دزفول، نظرات کارشناسان و کاربران از نظر درک زیبایی‌شناختی نیز متفاوت است، به‌طوری که برای کاربران، شکل و زمینه و برای متخصصان، تقارن اولین اصل است. بنابراین به‌طور غیرمنتظره‌ای می‌توان ادعا کرد که قوانین محسوس بصری گشتالت، مانند تقارن و قانون تکمیل بودن از اهمیت زیادی برای متخصصان برخوردار است، در حالی‌که این اصول برای گروه کاربر اهمیت کم‌تری دارند. یافته‌های این مطالعه مقایسه دیدگاه‌ها و نظرات افراد و متخصصان را امکان‌پذیر ساخته و تفاوت بین معیارهای درک کسانی را که محیط را ایجاد می‌کنند و افرادی که با محیط روبرو می‌شوند و در آن زندگی می‌کنند، مشخص کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation Visual Perception of Dezful City's Vernacular Urban Spaces between Expert and Non-Expert Based on Gestalt Theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Didehban 1
  • Behnaz Safar Ali Najar 2
  • Kourosh Momeni 3
  • Koorosh Attarian 4
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran.
2 M.A. of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran
چکیده [English]

Every art-work has a different perceptual aspect that is related to some issues such as aesthetic perception and knowledge of users. The important point is how users get that and the difference between architectural perception and users that is a controversial issue in modern architecture and cause disagreement between users and designers. According to the importance of vernacular architecture and the need to adapt to its pattern with modern architecture, this paper aimed to evaluate principles of visual Gestalt and aesthetics between users and designers (non-experts and experts1) in the traditional live district in Dezful city in Iran. The methodology of this research is combined with descriptive-surveying methods and field and library studies. So, a semi-structural interview by using a targeted questionnaire was distributed to the experts and non-experts to quantify the differences, and by describing and analyzing these data by SPSS statistical software, the root of the differences between these groups was identified. Due to the analysis of the data, besides searching, studying, and being in that district, two types of questionnaires between users and designers have been used. The result of this study shows that in the ancient city of Dezful, the opinions of experts and users also differ in terms of aesthetic perception so that for users, shape, and context, and experts, symmetry is the first principle. So unexpectedly, it can be argued that sensible visual Gestalt principles, such as symmetry and closure for experts, are of the highest importance, while these principles are of less importance to the user group. The findings of this study made it possible to compare the views and opinions of people and experts. It makes clear the difference between the perception criteria of those who create the landscape and the people who are confronted with and live in the environment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • visual perception
  • Aesthetic perception
  • Gestalt Theory
  • Built environment
  • Dezful city
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