Assessing Tehran’s Urban Structure Effects on Non-Compliance with FAR Regulations

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 Ph.D Candidate of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing Tehran’s Urban Structure Effects on Non-Compliance with FAR Regulations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elnaz Sarkheyli 1
  • Mojtaba Rafieian 2
1 Ph.D Candidate of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

   Building contraventions have become one of the important dilemmas of many cities like Tehran. The wide aftereffects of the contraventions and the large cost of removing their negative effects, make the reduction of the possibility of their occurrence essential. This paper tries to find the reasons and roots of building contraventions in order to prevent their occurrence through appropriate planning, legislation and decision making. In this paper, it is supposed that some urban conditions and location characteristics could result in more opportunities for the occurrence of building contraventions. Therefore, it tries to find the relationship between Tehran’s urban structure and the most dominant kind of building contravention in Tehran, FAR contravention. To study the relationship, the effects of physical, social, economic and functional factors describing Tehran’s urban structure on the occurrence of FAR contravention is surveyed using the correlation method. The results showed that the majority of factors are related to FAR contravention with confidence coefficient of 99% and 95%. Among them, the main factors are residential per capita, average building price, residential land use area, transport network area, total residential building floor area and the average residential plot area. Therefore, specifying the effects of various factors on the occurrence of building contravention causes their prevention to be more feasible.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban structure
  • Building Regulation
  • Building Contravention
  • FAR
  • Tehran

 

  • A100CTM.(2001). Building Contraventions in Tehran: Causes and characteristics, Shahrdariha, 33, 12–15.
  • Aguilar, A., G. (2008). Peri-urbanization, illegal settlements and environmental impact in Mexico City, Cities, 25, 133–145.
  • Allain, R. (2009). Urban Morphology, Geography, Spatial Planning and Urban Architecture (A. Sharifi, trans.). Tehran, Iran: Honar university.
  • Alnsour, J., Meaton, J. (2009). Factors Affecting Compliance with Residential Standards in the City of Old Salt, Jordan. Habitat Int. 33, 301-309.
  • Alexander, C. (2008). A pattern language: Towns and Building Construction (R. Karbalayi Nuri, trans.). Tehran, Iran: Center for Architectureal & Urban Studies and Research.
  • Appiahence, J. (2002). Urban Crime Trends and Patterns in Ghana: The Case of Accra, Journal of Criminal Justice. 31, 13-23.
  • Arimah, C. & Adeagbo, D. (2000). Compliance with Urban Development and Planning Regulations in Ibadan, Nigeria, Habitat Int. 24(3), 279-294.
  • Azizi, M. (2002). The Role of Building Density in Urban Development, Tehran, Iran: presented in The First Construction Seminar in Capital,.
  • Beheshtiravi, M. (1993). Assessing the Physical Effects of Building Contravention on Cities, case study: Tehran, Unpublished master’s thesis, Tehran: Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran.
  • Diargah Architectural and Urban Planning Consultant Firm (2010). The revision and modification of the process of building contraventions’ control in Tehran, Tehran, Iran: Planning and architecture department of Tehran municipality.
  • Fekade, W. (2000). Deficits of Formal Urban Land Management and Informal Responses Under Rapid Urban Growth: an international perspective, Habitat Int., 24(2), 127-150.
  • Few, R., Gouveia, N., Mathee, T., Harpham, A., Cohn, A. & Swart, A. (2004). Informal subdivision of residential and commercial buildings in Sao Paulo and Johannesburg: living conditions and policy implications, Habitat Int., 30(1), 427-442.
  • Hamshahri daily magazine (2003). Ten years of density selling, 11th year (3173), <http://hamshahrionline.ir/ hamnews/1382/820630/econom/maskan.htm>,Retrived January 2011.
  • Huchzermeyer, M. (2004). From “Contravention of Laws” to “lack of rights”: redefining the problem of informal settlements in South Africa, Habitat Int. 28, 333- 347.
  • Ioannidis, Ch., Psaltis, Ch. & Potsiou, Ch. (2009). Towards a Strategy for Control of Suburban Informal Buildings Through Automatic Change Detection, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 33, 64-74.
  • Kahraman, S, Saati, A. & Misir, S. (2009). Effects of Adding Illegal Storeys to Structural Systems, Sâdhanâ. 31(2) 515-526. < www.ias.ac.in/sadhana > Retrieved October 2009.
  • Kamyar, Gh. (2008). Urban Legal and Urban Planning, (3rd edition). Tehran, Iran: Majd Scientific and Cultural Assembly.
  • Madanipour, A. (2002). Tehran, Emergence of a Metropolitan (H. Zaravand,trans). Tehran, Iran: Pardazesh va Barnamerizi Shahri Firm.
  • Ogu, V. (1999). Housing Enablement in a Developing World City: the case study of Benin city, Nigeria, Habitat Int. 23(2), 231-248.
  • Rahnama, M. & Abbaszadeh, G. (2008). Fundamental and Models of Urban Form Measuring, Mashhad, Iran: Jahad Daneshgahi.
  • Sarkheyli, E., Sharifi, A., Rafieian, M., Bemanian, M. & Murayama, A. (2011). An Investigation of the Reasons for Non-compliance with FAR Regulations in Tehran, Cities, 29 (4), 223-233.
  • Sarkheyli, E. (2010). An Exploration of Influence of Tehran’s Spatial Structure on Occurrence of Building Contraventions, Unpublished master’s thesis, Tehran, Iran: Tarbiat Modares University.
  • Sarkheyli, E. & Rafieian, M. (2010). Pathology of Municipality of Tehran’s Revenues, Gained from Building Contraventions Fines, Tehran, Iran: Municipality Finance Conference.
  • Shieh, E. (2010). The Harmony of Industry, Voice of the City, Tehran, Iran: University of Science and Technology.
  • Sitte, C. (2009). Urban Structure According to Art Introduction (F. Gharib, trans.) (2nd edition). Tehran, Iran: University of Tehran Press.
  • Taleghani, M. (1990). Sociological Studies in Tehran, Tehran, Iran: Tehran Institute of Cultural Studies, Tehran.
  • Tavassoli, M. (2009). Urban design, the art of renewing urban structure with four case studies, Tehran, Iran: Khane Chap Va Tarh.
  • Wang, X. & Hofe, R. von. (2007). Research methods in urban and regional planning. Springer.
  • Winayanti, L. & Lang, H. C. (2004). Provision of Urban Services in an Informal Settlement: a case study of Kampung Penas Tanggul, Jakarta, Habitat Int. 28, 41-56.
  • ZangiAbadi, A., Ghaedrahmati, S., Mohammadi, J. & Safayi, H. (2010). Spatial analysis of interaction between building violation and earthquake vulnerability in Isfahan, Modares Olum Ensani, Barnamerizi Va Amayeshe Faza, 14 (2), 1-21.
  • Zegarac, Z. (1996). Illegal construction in Belgrade and prospects for urban development planning, Cities, 16(5), 365-370.