راهکارهای طراحی عرصه میانه با رویکرد جبران سازی مسکن حداقل در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیارمعماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

2 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

سکونت حاصل تأثیر عوامل متعددی مانند اقلیم، مصالح، فناوری ساخت، موقعیت زمین، عوامل اجتماعی، اقتصادی، نظامی، مذهبی است. در مقاله حاضر، مسکن به عنوان پهنه ای با معنی در "اکوسیستم سکونت " تلقی می شود. اکوسیستم سکونت، مانند هر اکوسیستمی شامل اجزایی است که از تعامل میان آن ها، بقای اکوسیستم امکان پذیر است و در صورت تغییرهریک از اجزا، لازم است سایر اجزا، جهت پایداری اکوسیستم تغییر کنند. انسان و محیط دو عضو اصلی اکوسیستم سکونت هستند. محیط شامل سه عرصه خصوصی، میانه و عمومی است. در این میان بحران های اجتماعی واقتصادی ایران دردهه های اخیر، برنامه ریزان را به سوی حداقل سازی مسکن یعنی کمینه کردن عرصه خصوصی هدایت کرده است. کمینه کردن عرصه خصوصی، می تواند آسیب هایی را به کیفیت سکونت وارد کند. از این رو جبران سازی مسکن حداقل در عرصه های دیگر اکوسیستم سکونت یعنی عرصه میانه و عمومی مطرح می شود. به دلیل اهمیت عرصه میانه، در مقاله حاضر جبران حداقل سازی مسکن در عرصه میانه بررسی شده است. مقاله حاضر در صدد تبیین راهکارهای طراحی عرصه میانه با رویکرد افزایش تعاملات اجتماعی ساکنان است تا محدودیت سکونت در مسکن حداقل جبران شود و منجر به حفظ کیفیت سکونت و پایداری اکوسیستم سکونت شود. روش تحقیق، کیفی-کمی و بر مبنای استدلال علمی است. جامعه آماری شامل 200 نفر ساکن در 2 مجموعه مسکونی است که رفتار آنان از طریق مشاهده و پرسشنامه ثبت شده است. یافته های پژوهش شامل راهکارهای ذیل است: -_طراحی ساختار متقارن و منظم در بلوک های مسکونی -_طراحی سلسله مراتبی حیاط های متوالی درعرصه میانه و ایجاد سبزینگی، آب نما و نشستنگاه -_طراحی فضاهای متنوع با کاربری هایی مانند فضای بازی، ورزش، پیاده روی، نشستنگاه در عرصه میانه -_اختصاص حریمی به نام "پیش خانه " به هر واحد مسکونی -_اختصاص "ایوان بازی " در فواصل هر سه طبقه ساختمان مسکونی

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Principle Patterns for Designing” Near Home Area” As a Compensation of Minimal Housing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ramin Madani 1
  • Minoo Shafaei 2
1 Assistant of professor of Architecture, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
2 Assistant of professor of Architecture, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

There are many factors that influence on dwelling. Some of these factors are: climate conditions, materials, technology, sight situation, social factors, economic, religion and etc. In this paper, the meaning of dwelling is more than residential complex. It’s also, more than apartments, residential units, houses or different spaces of a house. The meaning of dwelling is residence eco-system which consists of many sub-parts. The interaction between these parts makes eco-system continue living. If any parts of this eco-system change, it’s necessary to change other parts in order to make ecosystem alive. Human and environment are the two important parts of the residence eco-system. The environment has 3 main parts concludes: 1-private area, 2- semi-private semi-public area and 3- public area. Human as a vital part of this eco-system, is different with other parts. Human is an active complicated phenomena that have physical and also psychological needs. Also, humans try to search the potentials of their environment and control on it to increase their freedom of choice. In last decades, in Iran, economic and social crisis like population growth, rapid reparation of war damages, inflation, the villagers, migration to the cities and etc. have made programmers and government follow minimal housing. However there are so many researches in the field of residence and housing but, the problem has not studied in area of residence ecology. Now, these questions can be studied: What is the consequence of minimizing private area (houses) in residence eco-system? How can the problem of minimal housing be compensated in residence eco-system areas (semi-private semi-public area or public area)? Although, today’s minimal housing is a solution to residence problem, it’s accompanied with some problems because of its incorrect design. In accordance with lately researches, during the process of minimizing of houses, the surfaces of families’ areas (as sitting room or living room) are decreased. So, family members’ interactions may be limited. Decreasing private area in residence eco-system may cause human psycho-damages. As social interactions are one of the important human needs, it should be considered. Here, compensation of minimized houses in private area can be happened in other areas: public or semi-public one. In this paper, the importance of semi-private semi-public area that called “near home area” causes to discuss the compensation of “near home area”. Near home area is important because it is an area with so many potentials for social interactions. Because this area is very close to private area, different groups of residents can interact there. In this paper, observing residents’ behaviors in two residential complexes show that children play in near home area. Teenagers study, play in groups and have conversation with friends in the same age. Adults, also visit neighbors, go shopping and even study in suitable places. The place of social interaction of the olds is also near home area. Physical disabilities of older people and the importance of safety for kids limit these groups of residents to use public area as easy as near home area. So, near home area is more sufficient than public area for residents to attend in. The conclusion of this research is principle patterns for designing near home area as a solution for minimal housing. The research is used qualitative- quantitative method based on scientific reasoning method. Statistical Society is 200 resident families in two big residential complexes. The samples behaviors were submitted by questionnaires and observation. Results consist of design principles for increasing social interactions as a solution of minimal housing in dwelling eco-system. These principles are: Designing the symmetrical structure in near home area; Designing hierarchical structure of open spaces as yards in near home area; Designing Non-distributive structure in near home area; Designing active behavioral zones like playing areas, sport spaces, walking zone and passive behavioral zones as sitting areas; Designing “pre-house space” – pish khane- for every dwelling unit; Designing “kids playing zone” - eyvan e bazi- for every 3 stores of dwelling blocks; Design of these spaces in residential complexes, enhances the surface of near home areas that is shared among all residents and can’t be sold. So, programming is necessary to support from investors of these residential complexes. Also, maintenance and control of these spaces needs management to decrease extra costs as monthly charging for dwellers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Residence Eco-System
  • Minimal Housing
  • Compensation
  • Near Home Area
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