جستاری در راستای تعیین معیارهای طراحی بدنه شهری با توجه به فرهنگ قوم ترکمن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد طراحی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مطالعه و بررسی فرهنگ اقوام مختلف می تواند به طراحان شهری در جهت طراحی و ارائه فضاهای شهری باهویت، مناسب و مطلوب در دیار اقوام مذکور یاری رساند. توجه به بناهای قدیمی و ریتم و سبک و معماری ابنیه مذکور، همچنین بررسی موسیقی، رقص، پوشاک و رنگ در یک فرهنگ و استخراج عوامل مشترک مشابه در فرهنگ مذکور، نتایجی را در برخواهد داشت که با جمع بندی و هم پوشانی با یکدیگر اصول معینی را جهت طراحی یک بدنه یا فضای شهری در یک فرهنگ ارائه می دهد. در این مقاله سعی شده است که با مطالعه و بررسی فرهنگ ترکمن به طورکلی و موسیقی، پوشاک، رقص و معماری این فرهنگ به طور اخص، یک رشته عوامل مشترک استخراج و در جهت طراحی یک بدنه شهری در این فرهنگ خاص مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. این سؤال مطرح می باشد که آیا می توان با توجه به فرهنگ موجود اقوام گوناگون و به خصوص قوم ترکمن، معیارهایی را برای طراحی جداره های شهری با هویت مربوطه تعیین کرد. در نهایت سعی گردیده تا با استفاده از عوامل فرهنگی قوم ترکمن و تحلیل و ارزیابی آن ها به دسته ای از عوامل و معیارهای مشترکی همچون مرکزگرایی، ریتم، تقارن، وحدت، پویایی و... دست یافته و با توجه به معیارهای ارائه شده، نمونه ای از جداره شهری برای قوم مذکور طراحی شود. در نتیجه به نظر می آید، بتوان با دخالت عوامل تاریخی، فرهنگی، اقلیمی هر قومی به طراحی شهری با هویت برای قوم مورد نظر دست یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Query in Determining the Urban Design Criteria in Order to the Culture of the Turkmen People

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadreza Pourjafar 1
  • Farkhondeh Johari 2
1 1. Professor of Urban Design, Faculty of Art & Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 M.A. in Urban Design, Faculty of Art & Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Nowadays we observe that regional and cultural characteristics of the environment are ignored in urban and city designs which increasingly lead to decline the quality of the environment identity. Considering that issue, the attention to the cultural and environmental factors of the region on one hand and their evaluation on the other hand can have valuable results concerning to standard designs in city facade, center of the neighborhoods, prominent constructions and etc. So we have tried to present an example of an urban design based on Torkaman identity and culture. Paying attention to the old buildings and their rhythm, style, and architecture aligned with the study of music, dance, clothing and colors in the similar culture in order to extract common factors of culture, helps us to come to a conclusion that there are certain cultural principles with overlapping with each other for designing an urban facade or urban space. The Torkaman region is situated in the far eastern part of Mazendaran and some northern part of Khorasan. It is bound by country of Torkamansatan to the north, Bojnord to the east, Caspian Sea to the west and Alborz mountains to the south. Some important cultural factors which are evaluated in this paper are as follows: traditional architecture, music, dancing with dragger, clothing, carpet–weaving and jewelries. For example considering Torkman womens jewelries, we can find out that what their key framework and shapes are: square, quadratic, triangular and polygons or a combination of those shapes. The easiest and inseparable element concerns one’s visual relation in this matter is jewelry, in other word one can say Torkaman’s beauties decreases or fade away without these elements. The main characteristic of Torkaman jewelries are opal and crystal with colored stones. Majority of these precious stones are made from oval or diamond used on the surface of these symmetric jewelries. Usually there is a bigger stone at the center of these jewelries. As we know the converged diagonals center of a figure has the most attractive visual force, so when the eyes move around opal points, finally are focused at the center. Also, In polychrome, the Torkamans pay more attention to red, green ,yellow and blue ones and sometimes they use the darker ones but the background of the most Torkaman carpets are usually red. Since most of the characteristics and standards presented in Torkaman culture can also be used in city layer with urban identity, considering the forms of Torkaman clothing designs, jewelries, carpets and the harmonic rhythm in their motions, music and special architectures in their traditional trellis is important. The summarization of all these important characteristics and standards in each of those factors for city designs will be presented as follows: - Use of repetition and rhythm in Torkaman clothing designs, music in frame or Pause points of facade designs. - Use of center-oriented jewelries and harmonic Torkaman dagger dancing in the presented fix body centers. - Use of symmetric designs in carpet and clothing in the presented frame. - Use of red color as the main background color for carpets in the offered view with use of supplemented colors used in Torkman culture in green colors of trees in the facades . - Use of diamond designs as the main form used in Torkaman carpet design in the presented body. -Use of Torkaman trellis design in fix points in the presented frame. What is more considerable in the presented frame is the unity and harmonic center – oriented Torkman art observed in: jewelries, dance, and the standard of indoors rhythm and motion, windows and facades designs which are tangible and more important. The factor of color in all Torkaman arts has almost made red and green colors one of the main and key colors in Torkamn carpet.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • culture
  • Turkmen Ethnic
  • criterion
  • City Facade
  • Identity
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