نگاهی به مقوله هویت در شهرسازی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای تخصصی شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

یکی از موضوعات و مفاهیم مورد توجه بشر، موضوع هویت است و فعالیت های انسان در جهت احراز و یا معرفی هویت و مکان و مقامی است که آرمان های منبعث از جهان بینی او برایش تعیین میکند. لذا توجه به باطن و معنای اشیاء و اعمال میتوانند به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین عوامل هویت دهنده فرد و اجتماع و شهر ایفای نقش نماید. هویت، حلقه اتصال زنجیر باورها و عقاید است. هویت هر فرد معنای گذشته و حال اوست. در سیمای شهری نیز هویت قابل تأمل است. در شهرسازی امروز کشور، شکل شهر با مسائل مهمی مواجه است که در این بین عدم توجه به جنبه های کیفی شهر، عدم توجه به ویژگی های شهرسازی سنتی و عدم وجود رویکرد مناسب به گسترش های سریع شهری قابل توجه است. هویت موضوعی است که تفاوت سیمای شهر قدیم ایرانی و سیمای شهر معاصر را موجب گشته است. آنچه مسلم است در تمامی تغییر و تحولات شهرسازی ایران در طول زمان وجه مشترکی بنام زیبایی و تناسب کلی شهری وجود دارد. بنابراین می توان گفت اگر فضای شهری ایرانی واجد هویت بوده است و این هویت در فرهنگ، محیط، کالبد و معنا خود را می نمایاند، در فضای شهری امروز چنین نیست. توجه به شهرسازی و معماری قدیم نشان دهنده همدلی با آن است و سیمای شهرهای بی هویت کنونی حاصل التقاط فرهنگی امروز است. زبان معماری ایران در این دوره زبانی کثرت گراست که در آن فردیت گرایی و خودمحوری وجه غالب است. می توان با شناسایی اصول شکل دهنده فضاهای شهری ایرانی، شناخت نیازهای جامعه انسانی و شناخت ارز شهای فرهنگی جامعه به نظام پایدار برنامه ریزی برای شهر معاصر اندیشید. در این مقاله، معانی واژه هویت، مفهوم هویت شهری و در واقع مفهوم هویت در شهرسازی مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد و علل تفاوت سیمای شهر قدیم ایرانی و شهر معاصر از این دیدگاه بیان می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Significance of “Identity” in Urban Planning

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tahereh Nasr 1
  • Hamid Majedi 2
1 PhD Candidate, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Urbanism, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Identity is one of the focal concepts and ideas for human beings. Any kind of activity done by human is an attempt to gain the identity which his weltanschauung-oriented ideal determine it for him. Contemplating the significance and inner nature of objects and  actions can perform as one of the most important creators of individual society, and the city identity. Identity is the connecting chain of ideas and beliefs: an individual’s identity signifies his past and present. Identity can also be viewed in the image of the city. Only when the city achieves liveliness, sense of place, proportion, appropriate access and right functioning, it can attain appropriate shape and identity. Among these elements, sense of place contains a closer relationship with the issue of identity. Important elements in urban design include paying attention to the image of the city, spatial organization, urban symbols, human relations and social interactions. In Iranian traditional cities, suitable attention had been paid to all these elements. Unfortunately, such attentions are pale in Iranian contemporary urban planning. Recognition of the shaping principles of Iranian urban spaces, the needs of human societies and their cultural values can provide a way for sustainable planning system in contemporary cities. Architecture is a language which context is city. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration what makes the identity of a city is not its buildings or their combinations, but the city itself. Iranian contemporary cities have left behind their traditional values, as they haven’t caught up with the modern world yet. The modernism means finding the right answer to the question of time and place, to cultural values, to make use of ideas and experiences of people in the past and finally to promote them satisfactorily. However, the contemporary urban planning of Iran is more focused on physical appearance than the content. Iranian urban space possesses a certain identity and it should be manifested in culture, environment, urban shape and sense of place. Different definitions of identity have been presented. However, only the concept of  urban identity and in fact, the concept of identity in urban planning is examined in this research. Then, Causes of the distinction between Iranian traditional city image and Iranian contemporary city image are elaborated from this point of view. The main purpose of the present paper is to explain the role of “identity” in 20th century Iranian urban form. The results show that there are important elements in definition of urban form. Image of the city, spatial organization, symbols and signs of municipal human relations and social interaction are very significant. Lack of communication or poor communication causes disparity between the individual and the space which, in a long period, will cause an event called, “identity crisis”. The first consequence of identity crisis in the fact that one finds himself rootless. Unfortunately the wholeness of the Town has been ignored in urban design in 20th century. Our new towns are compound and collection of different architectural forms. The 5000 years urban history shows that the complex texture of alleys and squares has been required for linking the districts and ultimately forming urban identity centers. Today, cities faces a crisis due to a lack of spaces in their current performance, combining incompatible land uses, lack of uniformity and the dynamics of urban spaces. So the cities which have the same aspect of urban texture, appearance, form, space and means of implementation, lack of attention to the form and meaning regarding to the culture, obviously cannot make the sense. Therefore, spaces should be designed in a way which people can actually understand their surroundings, understanding and use of the urban environment. Urban areas should have an access to the actual daily activities, recall the experience of urban spaces and associate symbolic cultural and historical meaning to experience. Identifying the shape of an Iranian urban space and understanding the needs of society and cultural values of contemporary society can be led to the planning a sustainable system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Identity
  • Urban planning
  • Tradition
  • Urban Architecture
  • Urban Identity
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