تطابق شاخصه های مسکن بومی گیلان با معماری مدرن غرب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای معماری از دانشگاه گلاسکو انگلستان، دانشیار وزارت علوم تحقیقات و فناوری، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در این مقاله نشان داده می شود که معماری مسکن بومی گیلان و معماری دوران مدرن غرب با وجود ریشه های تاریخی،
فرهنگی، اجتماعی و اقلیمی اساساً متفاوت، شاخصه های فرمی مشابه بسیار زیادی داشته و آگاهی از این همخوانی
می تواند در فرآیند طراحی معماری مدرن شهری امروز که نیازمند هویت بخشی و پایداری اقلیمی، فرهنگی و اجتماعی
است، همچون ابزاری مؤثر به کار رود. برای نیل به مقصود از روش بررسی تطبیقی شاخصه های این دو گونه معماری بهره
گرفته می شود تا از طریق آن بتوان به شناخت ویژگی های مفهومی و کالبدی مشترک در این دو گونه معماری دست یافت.
این مقاله دارای چهار بخش است که در بخش نخست عوامل مؤثر بر معماری مسکن بومی گیلان مانند شرایط اقلیمی،
فرهنگی و معیشتی معرفی شده و پس از آن شاخصه های مسکن بومی گیلان و علل پیدایش هر یک بیان میشود. در
بخش دوم به شناخت معماری مدرن و عوامل شک لگیری آن پرداخته میشود و شاخصه های معماری آن دوران مطرح
می شود. در بخش سوم با بررسی تطبیقی شاخصه های معرفی شده برای هر دو گونه معماری به شناخت ویژگی های
مشترک آ نها پرداخته می شود و در بخش آخر شامل جمع بندی و نتیجه گیری همخوانی شاخصه های بسیار به عنوان
ابزاری برای تهیه چارچوب نظری طراحی معماری پایدار معاصر گیلان مطرح می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation the Relationship between the Attributes of Vernacular Residential Architecture of Gilan and the Attributes of Modern Architecture

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Yaran 1
  • Aras Mehranfar 2
1 Associate Professor of Architecture, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
2 M.A. Student of Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Contemporary modern urban architecture of Iran suffers from the lack of its native and cultural identity and sustainability during its process of modernization. The Modern urban architecture of Gilan seems to have the same problem as Iran's contemporary architecture. Underway of modernization, Modern architecture of Gilan has not been so successful to depict a sustainable type of its background and context. Because neither it has approached to the ideals of modern architecture nor preserved its original and cultural identity and contextual features. Trying to understand the high degree of correspondence of modern architecture attributes and features with the vernacular residential architecture of Gilan, will help designers and architects have a better attitude in modern architectural urban design in Gilan. So this article demonstrates that vernacular residential architecture of Gilan and modern period architecture have many similar attributes in form, despite their different histories, cultures and social backgrounds. This article expresses that some similar circumstances in both social backgrounds had some similarities in common, like women’s role in the economy and career style. Understanding this similitude is a necessity in the process of modern urban architectural design to have an identity and sustainability.
To approach its goal, this article is based on the comparative analysis method. In different sections of this article, similar features of forms and their origins would be identified for each architecture type. Four main sections of the article are as below:
First part explains the factors affecting vernacular architecture of Gilan consist of climatic, cultural and career circumstances, which have led Gilan vernacular architecture to an extroverted architecture type. Temperate climate and heavy rains have caused some kind of extroverted architecture type with tendency to natural materials, simplicity, transparency and etc. Buildings are open to natural air circulation and are made upper than the ground surface to avoid moisture of soil. These are due to climate consequences.
Buildings’ forms have a strong relation with their environment (farms, gardens, etc). They have terraces around rooms, open to the yard and most part of the life is being placed on terraces. So extroversion is the most attribute of vernacular architecture in Gilan which leads other features. The style of Gilanian occupants’ career, which was co-operating and collaborating of all family members, including men and women together, has also led the architecture to extroversion in form and environmental arrangement. Because working with neighbors and communicating with them around houses were regular and influenced by their way of living. After knowing Gilan’s climate and culture, the article depicts this type of architecture’s features and attributes and their origins in 13 items, including lightness, functionalism, symbolism, modular plan design, transparency, relation to nature and etc. These are mostly effects of extroversion and relation to nature.
Second Part is about Modern architecture period and knowing its features and origins.
At first, the article defines some important vocabulary of modernism issue like modern, modernism, modernization and modernity. These are necessary to understand thoughts and ideals of modern architecture. Then the most distinctive features and attributes of modern period architecture are distinguished by analyzing modern period thoughts and famous buildings and monuments. Minimalism, extroversion, naturalism, transparency, functionalism, sculpturally, lightness, brutality and etc. are the most specified attributes of western modern period. They are mostly effects of humanism, rationalism and also functionalism.
Third part of the article analyzes all mentioned attributes and features of both architecture types in a comparative method and demonstrates the similar ones. It shows 11 out of 14 mentioned attributes and features that are similar to each other and have correspondence, which shows a high degree of 80 percent similarity. In fact, just three features had been non relative and that were free plan design in modern architecture versus modular plan design in Gilan vernacular architecture and also symbolism in Gilan vernacular buildings.
The first was the effect of modern structure and technology in comparison with restricted one in Gilan historical buildings and the last one reflected Gilanians’ creed.
The last part of this study indicates the very high similitude in features and attributes of these two types of architecture despite their difference in cultural and historical contexts and backgrounds. From this correspondence in features of these two types, the article concludes that modern urban architectural design in Gilan can use this similar attributes  to have such a sustainable modern architecture with relation to its past and origins. The most similar features specified by this article are: Transparency, Functionalism, Minimalism, Extroversion, Naturalism, Sculpturally, Lightness, Brutality, Decreasing Decorations, Bolding Architectural Elements and Truth in Its Appearance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vernacular Residential Architecture
  • Modern Architecture
  • Architectural Features
  • Architectural Attributes

Alipouryani, T., Nouri, M. (2011). Formation of Modernity and PostModernity. Journal of Political Studies,

3(11), 207232.

 Bani Masoud, A. (2010). Western Architecture: Roots & Concept. Tehran: HonarEMemariEQarn.

 Bani Masoud, A. (2008). Postmodernity and Architecture. Tehran: Khak.

 Berman, M. (2002). The Experience of Modernity: All That Is Solid Melts into Air (M. Farhadpour, Trans.). Tehran:

TarhNo.

 Bromberger, C. (1991). Habitat, Architecture Et Societe Rurale Dans La Plaine Du Gilan (A. Goushegir, Trans.).

Cultural Researches and Studies Institute.

 Capon, D. S. (2009). Architectural Theories. (A. Yaran, Trans.). Tehran: Shahidi.

 Davies, C. (2008). Key Houses of the Twentieth Century: Plans, Sections and Elevations (A. Lafava, Trans.).

Tehran: SorushEDanesh.

 Diba, D., Yaghini, S. (1993). Analytic of Gilan Vernacular Architecture. HONARHAYEZIBA, 22, 6372.

 earchitect.co.uk.

 Ghobadian, V. (2007). Theories and Concepts in Contemporary Western Architecture, Tehran: Cultural Research

Bureau.

 Ghobadian, V. (2006). Climatic Analysis of the Traditional Iranian Buildings, Tehran: University of Tehran Press.

 Hauffe, T. (2007). Design. Tehran: SobhanENour.

 Kasmai, M. (2003). Climate and Architecture. Tehran: Khak.

 Khakpour, M. (2006). Building Shekili Houses in Gilan. HONARHAYEZIBA, 25, 4554.

 Khakpour, M. (2005). Vernacular Habitation in Rural Societies of Gilan. HONARHAYEZIBA, 22, 6372.

 Memarian, G. (2011). Studies of Theoretical Basis of Architecture. Tehran: SoroushEDanesh.

 Nikouye, M. (2008). Rasht, City of Rain. Rasht: FarhangEOlia.

 Nozari, H. (2001). Modernity and Modernism. Tehran: NaqshEJahan.

 Savoji, M. (2009). Modernity and Postmodernism. Politic Quarterly, Faculty of Law and Political Science, 39(2),

171192.

 Talebi, F. (2009). Old Gilan, Photos of Qajar Age. Rasht: FarhangEOlia.

 www.greatbuildings.com.

 www.geomuseum.com.