عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Architecture, like other forms of art, contains physical and spiritual aspects which has been designed and structured in response to spiritual and material needs. Historical architects have applied various tools in spatial design, in order to facilitate the relationship between creator and the creation. They have used light, as a symbol for divine unity, to illustrate
a manifestation of divine substance in the mind of observer. Presence of light does not merely represent brightness but rather it contains attributes which has been performed in the sublime within Iranian historical architecture and a review of its techniques can certainly act as guide for designing. The method of applying these alternatives requires adaptation of new techniques which is possible with the advancement of software and light evaluation tools. The present article used the latest technique, HDR photography, to calculate and present the existing intensity of light within a structure and to discover light techniques in creating spiritualism in space. The method uses its own specialized software, Photosphere, to theorize qualitative issues and transform them into numerical data. To obtain accurate information regarding current brightness of the structure, a digital tool called the luminescence meter was used as well as a professional photographing camera. June 26 and 27, were selected for this research due to the intense sunlight and clear sky of summer. Photography and collection of information regarding the structure were performed three times daily at 9 in the morning, 12 noon, and 3 in the afternoon. Selection of the most popular visiting points were made according to the times that observers pondered in each site and spatial perception was based on the space between the entrance to the hallway and the dome area. These points included 4 in the Imam mosque and 6 in Sheikh Lotfollah mosque. Measurements of brightness were made using the luminescence tool in 140 centimeters height (the average sight range for a standing person) and 60 centimeters (average sight range for a person sitting while praying). Photography was performed within 5 stages in each point through manually adjusting the professional camera in total brightness until absolute darkness. Images have been transformed into smart HDR images using photosphere software. HDR images are able to offer actual spatial brightness and to evaluate qualitative characteristics of light (light dispersion, direction and angle, brightness and dazzlement). The present article has selected these historical mosques, which display the characteristics of natural light designs in creating a spiritual space. Combination of the dome area and altar is the foundation for creating a spiritual space due to its sanctity, thus considered as an appropriate place for evaluating the relationship of daylight and spatial spiritualism. Results indicate that architects have applied capabilities of light to act as a divine messenger in mosques: light representing divine manifestation, spatial diversity and continuity, transfer of divine emotions sense, guiding one through the path, emphasizing special
places are among the objectives achieved by natural light. Presence of light in space, accordingly, is not merely on basis of lighting but rather its entrance into architecture defines its creation of quality. Thus to create a spiritual atmosphere, one must not suffice to quantitative factors, as qualitative aspects play a more determining role. Light, is a principle beyond time and space that by having different ideas, can be presented in various methods at any place. When designing the dome area in the mosque, the altar is the main objective and the sublime goal in designing the supervisory space at all hours is emphasized by light. The main criterion for quality of light in designing a spiritual space is through controlling direction and angle of light in order to emphasize space, direction or a specific point which, from the entrance, focuses the mind of the observer towards Kiblah and God. On the other hand, the brightness of space influences one’s needs and activities. The dimly lit space of the Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque with brightness of less than 100 lux invites one to a private encounter with God, while the bright space of the dome in the Imam Mosque with a 900 lux brightness provides the grounds for group activities. Spatial variety based on light in Imam Mosque has prompted visitors to select their desired space based on their need for personal or group prayer. Space resiliency based on brightness is among other deliberated and wise points considered in architecture of Imam Mosque. In order to provide a better understanding of spiritual space within the mosque, factors such as light, time, and movement have come together with architecture to coordinate one’s
perspective and cognition with space within the corridor. Both mosques provide the same function yet with two separate approaches based on different needs, in applying same model of natural light to reflect the same fact.