ارزیابی منابع تأثیر‌گذار طراحی شهری در ایران بر اساس رویکرد بومی‌سازی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده بارتلت، دانشگاه یو سی ال، لندن، انگلستان

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد تئوری های شهرسازی، مدرسه نو طراحی، دانشگاه پارسون، نیویورک، آمریکا.

3 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

بومی‌سازی دانش طراحی شهری همواره یکی از دغدغه‌های متخصصان طراحی شهری در ایران بوده است. وجود محیط‌های ساخته شده بر اساس فرهنگی متفاوت از کشورهای تولیدکننده دانش، لزوم بومی‌سازی را پررنگ‌تر کرده است. بومی‌سازی دانش به دو گونه پاسخگویی برای شرایط خاص بومی و تولید دانش بومی مطرح شده است. توجه به مسائل خاص بومی و ارائه روش‌های یکسان برای آن‌ها گونه متداول‌تری است، اما با وجود تلاش برای تولید دانش بومی مسأله‌ای که نادیده گرفته شده است که ارزیابی میزان موفقیت آن است. پیش‌فرض مقاله حاضر بر این است که بر پایه نظریه‌های بومی، بهتر و آسان‌تر می‌توان به محیطی موفق و متناسب با بستر فیزیکی و فرهنگی دست یافت. بنابراین با ارزیابی تلاش‌هایی که تاکنون صورت گرفته، موفقیت گام‌های بعدی در ایجاد نظریه بومی و در پی آن ایجاد محیطی خوب تسهیل خواهد شد. بر اساس اهداف کلی دانش طراحی شهری و خصوصیات زمینه‌ای پنج معیار اصلی ارائه شده است. داشتن روش به منظور بازنگری و اعتبار سنجی، تحقق پذیری به معنای عملیاتی بودن، درس گرفتن از تجربیات به مسائل خاص شهرهای ایرانی و اهمیت‌دادن به ارزش‌های فرهنگی و بومی معیارهای اصلی برای ارزیابی بومی‌سازی دانش طراحی شهری در نظرگرفته شده است. نتایج تحقیق انجام شده نشان می‌دهد که در میان کتاب‌های طراحی شهری در ایران، برخلاف توجه به مفاهیم بومی، روش معینی برای حصول به این اهداف ارائه نشده است. از طرف دیگر رابطه این نظریه‌ها با تجربیات گذشته دارای ضعف ساختاری است که در نتیجه تجربیاتی که بر اساس همین نظریه‌ها در آینده به دست می‌آیند هم امکان بازنگری و بهبود در راستای ایجاد محیطی مطلوب را فراهم نمی‌کنند. در نهایت نیز در بخش نتیجه‌گیری به ارائه پیشنهاداتی در زمینه چگونگی مطالعات و پژوهش‌های آتی پرداخته می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Effective Resources of Urban Designing in Iran, Based on the Localization Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hooman Foroughmand Araabi 1
  • Maryam Khabazi 2
  • Hooshang Foroughmand Araabi 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Planning Studies, Bartlett School of Planning, UCL, London, UK.
2 M.A. Student of Theories of Urban Practice, Theories of Urban Practice, Parsons School of Design, New York, USA.
3 Ph.D. Student of Architecture, School of Architecture and Planning, Art University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Urban design, like any other branch of the social sciences and built-environment studies, has developed in relation with the contexts in which it has emerged. Built environments in Iran have been constructed in a different way compared to their European and American counterparts. Western urban environments and cultures are the main sources of urban design knowledge. In turn, the knowledge replicates such environments and advocates such values. Nevertheless, the differences between Iranian context and the Western one is the main reason necessitating the attempt to create vernacular knowledge for Iran. At this point after urban design being introduced, taught and researched in Iran for decades, it is significant to analyze the success or failure of vernacular theories. In this respect, this article first critically reviews the literature in order to make a framework to evaluate various urban design texts. Second it assesses the influential urban design texts that have attempted to adapt the Western knowledge to the context of Iranian cities. The assumption of this article is that vernacular theories are more capable of creating successful places and fulfilling needs and demands of the society. In this respect, criticizing and analyzing texts that aimed at making vernacular knowledge paves the way for further attempts in both theory and practice. The main references of this article are from two seemingly discrete domains. First the texts which discuss and introduce the characteristics of successful urban design theory. We assume that vernacular urban design theory is a kind of theory belonging to the broader domain of urban design thinking, it must meet the criteria of successful urban design theory. The second set of references are from texts that are particularly studying the characteristics of successful vernacular theory. Many studies, from countries that imported the knowledge, have attempt to clarify such characteristics under various titles. However, there is not any study on this topic in Iran. Therefore, this article offers contributions to the literature. The urban design texts that have vernacular aspects are being analyzed on the basis of three main criteria of analyzing theory and two specific criteria of analyzing vernacular theory. The main criteria of a good theory are: 1. The way of building a theory should be justifiable. Clarifying such processes would enable further revisions when required and justify the theory; 2. The theory should have practical applications; since the goal of urban design is making better places the theory within this field should ultimately have practical influences 3. A theory should learn from the past urban design experiences; Ignoring the existing body of knowledge is certainly a disadvantage for any research or theory. Two specific criteria of analyzing vernacular theory discussed in this article are that 1. The theory should respond to the specific problems of Iranian cities; meaning a so-called vernacular theory should aimed at solving vernacular problems. Inevitably such a theory, first of all, needs to have a good understanding of urban problems in Iran. The second requirement for its criterion is to have a realistic assessment of the potentials and abilities in Iran (including academic potentials) 2. The theory should consider the cultural and vernacular values and norms. This means that solutions suggested by the vernacular theories should be defined in a way to lessen the gap between culturally accepted values and the existing condition. This criterion develops the fact that urban design is always and necessarily value-laden and a good vernacular theory must represent local values. Therefore, three key urban design texts that are basically written for Iran and have been successfully received by the professionals are being examined against the mentioned criteria. These titles are achieved through a systematic review of the literature while it can be seen as representatives of successful urban design texts written by Iranian urban design scholars for the Iranian cities. The results of this article display that the Iranian theorists have paid attention to the necessity of vernacular theories as all the three writers touched upon this issue.. The vague process of making vernacular theory, fails to take the local values into account, and the weak linkage between the available knowledge and case studies have deteriorated the effectiveness of the attempts of making vernacular urban design in Iran. This article adds that vernacularizing urban design must also be aware of similar attempts in different fields. This article makes the contribution to the literature by highlighting the importance of the topic for future research as well as offering the set of criteria for good vernacular urban design theory that can be used in order to systematically develop the knowledge. Moreover, the evaluation of the three influential texts in the final part of this article aims to find strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature. Keywords: City, Accessibility, Commute Mode, Babolsar City.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Design Theories
  • Vernacular Theory
  • Analyzing the Vernacular Theory
  • Building a Theory

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