معماری و ابعاد آموزش آن بر پایه متون حکمی (با تأکید بر حفظ هویت ایرانِ اسلامی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران.

3 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران

چکیده

معماری هر سرزمین، نشان هویت آن است. ایران با پیشینه درخشانش در تمدن و گسترش دین اسلام در آن، دارای هویت تاریخی، ایرانی، اسلامی قوی است که لازمه حفظ آن شناخت اصول بنیادی و مبانی نظری معماری است. در گذشته، اصول و ارزش‌ها در غالب نظام استاد شاگردی در بستر فرهنگی جامعه منتقل می‎‌شده است که امروزه جای این آموزش در مدارس معماری خالیست. بهترین راه شناخت آموزش معماری در معماری سنتی مراجعه به بناها و مکتوبات مرتبط با معماری است که در این زمینه اثر تدوین شده‌ای که مستقیماً مرتبط با معماری باشد، به ما ارث نرسیده و اغلب تحقیقات به شکل توصیفی برروی آثار انجام شده است. پژوهش حاضر به دنبال پاسخ این سؤال است که پشتوانه‌ علمی و ارزشی معماری سنتی ما چه بوده است؟ چگونه می‌توان آن را آموزش داد؟ در این مسیر سعی شده با تأکید بر متون فارسی درجه یک در دوره زمانی سده اول تا دوازدهم مبانی بنیادی علمی و حکمی (معرفتی) آنان به روش استنادی و در پی آن استنباطی بررسی شود. در این راستا با مطالعه متون کهن حکمی و فیش‌برداری و استخراج مطالب مرتبط با معماری، مواردی که از آن‌ها می‌توان در آموزش معماران آینده استفاده کرد، مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. کتاب‌های احصاء العلوم، مجمل الحکمه، گزیده اخوان الصفا، رساله معماریه، فتوت‌نامه بنایان نمونه‌های مورد بررسی هستند. یافته‌های تحقیق در متون کهن مبین این است که معماری با فنون و علوم نظری- عملی دیگر نظیر ریاضیات، هندسه، علم حیل و موسیقی در ارتباط بوده‌ و آموزش معماری همراه با تعالیم اخلاقی و اعتقادی با محور جهان‌بینی توحیدی بوده ‌است. همراه کردن آموزش‌های اخلاقی در کنار آموزش‌های حرفه‌ای لازمه‌ معماری با هویت در آینده کشورمان است. بازبینی در شرح دروس دانشگاهی رشته معماری و رشته‌های مرتبط آن راهکاری برای رسیدن به هدف است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Architecture and its Training Aspects Based on Wisdom Manuscripts (With Emphasis on Iranian- Islamic Identity)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Asma Khamechian 1
  • Mostafa Azad 2
  • Hamidreza Farshchi 3
1 M.A of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Art, Kashan University, Kashan, Iran
2 M.A. of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Art, Kashan University, Kashan, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Art, Kashan University, Kashan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Architecture of any country and territory is the sign of its identity. Our country, Iran, with bright and widespread background of Islamic world, has a strong historic, Iranian and Islamic background and a prerequisite of maintaining this identity is transferring it, generation by generation. This knowledge has been transferred by teacher-student system in the past, but nowadays such a practical training is missed in architecture schools. Reviving this tradition, we can vitalize prior Iranian Islamic identity of ourselves with help of training in modern architecture schools. This paper, seeks to find solutions for teaching Iranian Islamic architecture at universities, in order to instruct some architects who develop functional structures with Iranian Islamic architecture identity, by using past experiences and adjusting them with today’s needs and sciences .Since no edited work inherit to this paper was found in this area, and most of current researches have not investigated theoretical principles of traditional architecture professionally while they were shaped based on Islamic architecture works, we are going to find out what the theoretical principles of traditional architecture training methods and reflections have been. In this way, we investigate theoretical principles from scientific and cognitive views, emphasizing on grade one Persian texts1, in the period of first to twelfths Hijri centuries, using trusted evidences followed by inferential methods. The research literature consists of two categories, first category is a research that collects, announces, modifies, and makes reviews on ancient manuscripts related to the architecture which is fall within the scope of this article. (For example: Helabi, 1984; Daneshpazhoh, 1996; KhanMohammadi, 1992; Farabi, 1969; Necipoglu, 2010). The second category includes researches that explore and analyze these resources to find different instructions and guidelines (for example: Mohaghegh, 1991). The present study belongs to the second category. This research consists of three main questions: 1. what are the theoretical principles of traditional architects? 2. How theoretical principles have influenced on the design and construction of architects? 3. What is the aspects of architecture training? For achieving this goal, we will extract related subjects to architecture and pay attention to subjects which can be used in training future architects by investigating ancient manuscripts (-Fotovvatname- books about rectitude, scientific cognitive pamphlet.) In this course, Ihsa-al-olum [classifying sciences], Mojmal-al- hikmat [a brief of histories], elite of Ekhvan-al-safa [brothers of honesty], Resale-ye-Me’mariyeh [pamphlet of architecture], Fotovvatname-ye- Bannayan [a book about rectitude of architects], have been investigated. Based on this research, theoretical principles of Iranian Islamic identity can be categorized into four parts. First, items related to God, second, items related to human, third, items related to architecture science and at least, fourth, items related to architecture teaching. The results of this studies were ranked in these four categories. At the end, we found that, Assimilate Moral education is a requirement for our future architectural identity. It needs integration of executive, research and educational centers. Review of main university courses in architecture and related fields is a strategy to achieve this goal. for this purpose, following executive solutions are recommended:
A) Learning geometry based on wisdom of Iranian Islamic geometry in applied geometry courses and architectural design. It should be noted that geometry is not the only form and line but rather a deep connection with the meaning, rules and order of creation.
B) Paying attention to the system of education in traditional architects, including moral texts like “Fotovvatname” [a book about rectitude of architects], as a pattern of architectural ethics in both theoretical and practical functions, to shape the ethics worthy of architects
C) Using practices and solutions, related to valuable Iranian Islamic buildings in the process of designing courses to have institutionalized monotheistic and purposeful thinking in architecture design.
D) Since specialized disciplines separate different sciences, adding courses that explain the relationship of sciences, like: Logic, literature, theology and ethics is necessary.
For future research, Persian ancient manuscripts are rich resources for difference subjects and can be used to access to basic information for various sciences while they require further research in different specializations to reveal their true values.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Architecture Training
  • Iranian Islamic Identity
  • Theoretical Principles
  • Persian Ancient Manuscripts

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