بررسی تطبیقی الزامات ساماندهی کالبدی- فضایی مبادی ورودی شهرها از دیدگاه گروه‌های استفاده‌کننده از آن‌ها با مدل مکان پایدار، مورد مطالعاتی: جنوب‌شرق تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس‌ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس‌ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در حالی است که در گذشته؛ یعنی زمانی که فناوری ارتباطات جهت ارائه تصویر ذهنی و عینی از مکان‌ها قبل از مراجعه حضوری به آن‌ها در دسترس نبود، ورودی‌ها اولین سطح برخورد مسافران، شهروندان و بیگانگان با شهر مقصد را شکل می‌داد. از این‌رو، حاکمان همواره درصدد بودند تا با احداث دروازه‌های و باروها گرداگرد شهر به معرفی ویژگی‌ها و شخصیت قلمرو خود بپردازند. اما طی دهه‌های أخیر در فرآیند رشد شتابان شهری، این فضاهای تشخص بخش به شهر چار انواع آلودگی‌های بصری و صوتی شده‌اند. به‌گونه‌ای که تبدیل به یکی از ناهنجارترین فضاهای شهری شده‌اند. ساماندهی چنین فضاهایی نه تنها یک ضرورت کالبدی بلکه یک ضرورت اجتماعی و فرهنگی نیز هست چرا که ورودی یک شهر همچون آینه تمام نمای محتوای یک شهر است و تصویر ذهنی قوی در ذهن مسافر در مورد کلیت شهر ایحاد می‌کند. در این راستا وجود یک تئوری هدایت‌کننده ساماندهی ضروری است. هدف اصلی این مقاله بررسی نیازهای واقعی گروه‌های مختلف اجتماعی استفاده‌کننده از ورودی‌ها و میزان تطابق آن با تئوری مکان پایدار به‌عنوان تئوری به‌روز و مطرح در عرصه طراحی فضاهای شهری است. روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی است و تحقیق با استفاده از روش‌های میدانی انجام یافته است.  نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که این توقعات و نیازها با مؤلفه‌های تئوری مکان پایدار همخوانی لازم را دارند. لذا، این تئوری می‌تواند کاربست مناسبی در راستای هدایت جریان کلی ساماندهی این فضاها داشته باشد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Adaptive Study of Organizing Requirements of Physical – spatial Structure of Cities Ports of Entry from the Perspective of User Groups and by Using Sustainable Place Model, Case study: Southern East of Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Mastiani 1
  • Mohadese Sheikhi 2
  • Abdolhadi Daneshpour 3
1 M.A. of Urban Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Center Branch,Tehran, Iran
2 M.A. of Urban Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Center Branch, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Urban Design, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The width of cities’ entry ports is the result of overlapping urban and suburban environments, or in the case of Metropolises, it is the outcome of overlapping city and urban areas. In the past, when communication technology was not available to present a subjective and tangible image of places, ports of entry were the first visual representation that the travelers were faced with at the city of destination. Therefore, city planners always attempted to build city gates and Ramparts in order to impress the outsiders. Depending on the requirements of entry ports, various activities and functions were formed. In short, a port of entry was a place of its own with the ability of being memorable and a place for gathering of people. However, during the recent decades of universal development of cities, advances in technology, industry and transportation of goods, services and passengers, and long distances between city entrance and city hubs, the quality of City borders and ports of entry has been downgraded. City districts have different kinds of visual and noise pollution, so that they have become one of the most dissonant parts of the city. Ports of entry have turned into poor quality spaces for car traffic utilities for road - users, and also uses that were disadvantages to the city. As a result, the quality of ports of entry of many cities in Iran are severely downgraded in many aspects; and this manifested in cases such as disorganization, uncertain position of these areas in city hierarchy, simplistic and negligent approaches to organizing City spaces, and many other issues. This issue is intertwined with many other problems, especially in a Metropolis such as Tehran, in which low-income population of immigrants are one of the challenging problems. Furthermore, destruction of agricultural lands and Gardens surrounding the city, disorganized construction of residential buildings, development of residence locations of delinquents and abandoned areas, and sanitary waste disposal sites are all essential elements that constitute the true function of Tehran’s ports of entry. Today, the most common type of a special communication, proximity, does not exist as a form of communication with the outside of the city in Ports of entry. This issue is largely due to imprecise physical borders between the city and its outside environment, and the result of gradual development of the city beyond its service and legal boundaries. However, the method of spatial communication in old cities of Iran was this method: Setting up walls and boundaries circling the city prevented the outpouring of City elements to its external environment, and the City front gates were a form of communication between the city and its surrounding nature (Bahraini, 2003, 21). Therefore, organizing these spaces is not only a necessity in terms of a structure, but it is also critical to social and cultural context of the city. This is due to the fact that City’s entrance is a representation of what is inside the city, and it creates a strong mental image of the city in the Traveler’s mind. In this regard, a guiding theory for organizing City spaces is necessary. The main goal of this study is to examine the true requirements of various social groups that use the city entrances, and to see if they are consistent with the sustainable place theory, which is an updated and relevant in the subject of designing city spaces. This is a descriptive - analytical study, and it uses field study methods. The results of this study show that expectations and requirements of different social groups are consistent with the components of sustainable place theory. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to adapt the opinions and needs of various user groups to the theoretical model of sustainable place. By doing this, this study seeks to test this model in the physical - spatial organization of cities’ entry ports, and to do so in a practical sense and in accordance with the users’ needs and organizing and renovating programmes. Also, for a review of scientific literature, Tehran’s South eastern ports of entry (Garmsar - Tehran) are chosen as the capital to help in recognizing the most important design strategies as the main objectives based on prevalent theoretical basics of research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Requirements and Expectations from City Entrance
  • Sustainable Place Model
  • Dilemmas and Problems From
  • Tehran

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