ارزیابی کیفیت محیط مسکونی مرکز شهر با تأکید بر پایداری، مورد مطالعاتی: محدوده سرشور و چهنو شهر مشهد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی‌شهری، واحد بین الملل، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران.

2 عضو هیأت علمی و دانشیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران

3 عضو هیأت علمی و دانشیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران.

4 عضو هیأت علمی و استادیار دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران.

چکیده

یکی از دلایل بحران سکونت در بخش مرکزی شهرها تحولات توسعه است که باعث خالی از سکنه شدن تدریجی و افزایش فرسودگی آن‌ها می‎شود. بافت مرکزی شهر مشهد نیز با چنین پدیده‎ای روبه‏رو می‎باشد. وجود حرم امام رضا (ع) و خیل زائران، اهمیت بررسی و رفع مشکلات این محدوده را بیشتر نموده است. این پژوهش در پی شناسایی عوامل تهدیدزا و دلایل افت کیفیت پهنه‌های مسکونی و همچنین جستجوی راه‌حل‌هایی برای بازگرداندن مفهوم "سکون" به این گونه بافت‌ها با هدف ایجاد پایداری می‎باشد. بنابراین، مسأله پژوهش، آن است که کیفیت بافت مسکونی مرکزی شهر مشهد چگونه است و چه معیارهایی برای ارتقا آن می‎تواند سودمند باشد؟ روش پژوهش ترکیبی از تحلیل محتوای کیفی و پیمایش است. تحلیل ادبیات و مبانی نظری مرتبط، به تبیین شاخص‎ها و معیارهای کیفیت محیط برای داشتن سکونت پایدار انجامید. از دستاورد این فاز، برای سنجش کیفیت محدوده سرشور و چهنو به‌عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین حوزه‌های مسکونی مرکز شهر مشهد استفاده شد. تکنیک‎های گردآوری داده‎ها شامل برداشت‎های میدانی، تحلیل مجموعاً 120 پرسش‌نامه شهروندان، شاغلان و زائران بود. جهت رتبه‎بندی و تحلیل معیارها و شاخص‎ها از روش تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی  و نرم‌افزار Expert Choice استفاده شد. نتایج تأکید دارد معیارهای کیفیت محیط در چهار بعد اصلی و به ترتیب اولویت عملکردی، تجربی- ادراکی، جمعیتی- اجتماعی- اقتصادی و زیست‌محیطی تأثیر ویژه‎ای بر میزان پایداری بافت مسکونی دارند. تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی نشان داد معیارهای کاربری چندگانه زمین و تعادل بین مشاغل و مسکن در بعد عملکردی، ضریب ماندگاری و هزینه‎های قابل کنترل مسکن در بعد اجتماعی- جمعیتی- اقتصادی، عدم وجود آلاینده‎ها در بعد زیست‌محیطی و دو معیار میزان رضایت‌مندی شهروندان و میزان امنیت محیط در بعد ادراکی- تجربی از جمله مهم‌ترین معیارهای اثرگذار بر کیفیت محیط محدوده هستند. این موارد بالاترین اهمیت و وزن را در سنجش دودویی بین متغیرها کسب کردند. نرخ ناسازگاری تحلیل 03/0 مؤید روایی معیارها و شاخص‎ها می‎باشد. این معیارها و شاخص‎های می‎تواند با تغییراتی در سایر بافت‎های مرکزی شهرها استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Quality Assessment of Residential Area of City Center with Emphasis on Stability, Case Study: Sarshor and Chahno Districts of Mashhad

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nona Mesgarani 1
  • Mohammad Ajza Shokouhi 2
  • Brat Ali Khakpoor 3
  • Mohammad Reza Noghsan Mohammadi 4
1 Ph.D. Student in Geography and Urban Planning, International Campus of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Faculty Member and Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Faculty Member and Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
4 Faculty Member and Associate Professor of Architecture, Department of Urban and Architecture, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Development evolution with control and management framework is a major reason for residential crises at downtowns which results in gradual discharge and increase in its deterioration. The studied area of this research is an important part of the central texture of Mashhad; which is faced with same phenomena. Existence of Imam Reza’s Holy Shrine and his high number of pilgrims and tourists increased the importance for investigating and removing problems of this area.
This research tends to investigate potential threats and causes of the loss of the quality of residential areas as well as searching for solutions for modernizing and restoring the concept of “residence” in these textures with the goal of establishing sustainability.
This research primarily concentrates on the following questions:
What are the main threatening factors for the studied old texture at downtown of Mashhad? What is going to happen on these old textures in the future? What is the approach of modernization plans of the studied old textures with a perspective of promoting residential quality and increasing their satisfaction? What are definitions and indices used to present a clear definition from different dimensions of “the quality of residential urban environment” at the studied old texture?
This is a descriptive analytical research which is established on scientific method with stages. Related theoretical fundamentals and literature analysis and analysis of current conditions were performed for determining indices and criteria of the quality of urban environments for having sustainable residence. Research conceptual model is one of the major achievements of this stage which is based on the origin of the subject or general concept of this research i.e. “promoting the quality of residential environment at old textures of the city of Mashhad”.
Data collection techniques partly included field study of the studied area; analysis and processing of which was performed using GIS software. For ranking and analyzing criteria and indices, we applied hierarchical analytic method and Expert Choice Software.
Using quantitative data collected from 120 questionnaires for control groups (urban experts, citizens, pilgrims, and tourists) this paper evaluated current status of the dimensions and constructive indices of the quality of urban residential environment.
Using AHP software, the importance of the most important dimension among eight dimensions of the quality of urban residential environments was determined for old structures located at downtown of Mashhad; and effective loads were tested and evaluated.
Findings of this research are presented in two parts: model test and hypothesis test. This paper emphasizes on the content that satisfaction of the residents of the studied area affects on sustainability of population and security of the area. Despite deterioration and decrease in efficiency of the texture, residence is still going on but in danger. It sounds that “increase in satisfaction of residents through promoting the quality of residential urban environment (sustainable neighborhood) is applicable; therefore, regeneration of old texture of the studied area is applicable subject to the approach for promoting the quality of residential urban environment and local sustainable development”. It is to be noted that environmental quality criteria, including experimental-perceptual, population- social- economic, ecological, in four main dimensions and based on functional priority have significant effect on amount of sustainability in residential tissue. The aforesaid dimensions are in improper status, average and threatened. In continue, most important dimensions in construction of the quality of urban residential environments of the studied area are operational. The Analytic Hierarchy Process results indicated that multiple land use criteria and a balance between jobs and housing in functional dimension, durability coefficient and controllable expenses of housing in social-population-economic dimension, the absence of pollutants in ecological dimension, and two other criteria, named citizen satisfaction and environmental security in perceptual-experimental dimension are the most prominent criteria affecting the quality of the aforementioned districts. These factors yielded the most important results in binary assessment among variables. 0.03 of analysis inconsistency rate is a sign of accurate judgment among criteria and indexes. By making alterations to the rest of neighborhood tissues of the district in city center, the suggested criteria and indexes of this study can be employed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Quality
  • Residence
  • Sustainability
  • Quality Assessment Criteria
  • Analytic Hierarchy Process
  • Mashhad
  • Sarshor
  • Chahno

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