مطالعه مؤلفه‌های شکل‌دهنده کیفیت معنایی- ادراکی محیط، مورد مطالعاتی: محله قطارچیان سنندج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کردستان، سنندج، ایران.

2 دانشیار طراحی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه علوم و تحقیقات تهران (واحد کردستان)، سنندج، ایران.

چکیده

در دهه‌های اخیر موضوع کیفیت محیط شهری به یک بحث تخصصی و عمومی در جامعه تبدیل شده و تحقیقات نشانگر آن است که محیط‌های شهری شامل مؤلفه‌های شکل‌دهنده کیفیت محیط است که در صورت بی‌توجهی به آن‌ها، از کارآمدی محیط‌های شهری کاسته می‌شود. از این‌رو پژوهش حاضر بر آن است که به شناسایی مؤلفه‌های مؤثر بر بهبود کیفیت محیط شهری پرداخته و تعیین‌کنندگی هر کدام از این مؤلفه‌ها را در کیفیت معنایی- ادراکی محله قطارچیان شهر سنندج، مورد سنجش قرار دهد. نوع پژوهش، از نظر هدف؛ کاربردی و از لحاظ روش انجام تحقیق، «توصیفی- تحلیلی» است. با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، نمونه‌ای به حجم 343 نفر از ساکنین به شیوه نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب و کیفیت محیط محدوده مورد مطالعه توسط آنان مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها پرسشنامه بوده که پاسخ آن‌ها به‌صورت بسته بوده است و نسخه اولیه آن مشتمل بر 23 شاخص است. همچنین روایی ظاهری پرسشنامه با استناد به‌نظر متخصصان و پایایی آن با استناد به ضریب آلفای کرونباخ (75/0) بررسی و تأیید شده است. در این راستا با به‌کارگیری نرم‌افزارهای SPSS و Lisrel، داده‌ها توسط روش‌های آماری نظیر تحلیل عامل تأییدی و آزمون t تک نمونه‌ای مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. مهم‌ترین نتایج تحلیل عامل تأییدی نشانگر آن است که شاخص‌های بیانگر کیفیت معنایی- ادراکی محیط می‌توانند توصیف مناسبی از متغیر کیفیت معنایی- ادراکی به عمل آورند اما مؤلفه امنیت نمی‌توانست بیان‌کننده این متغیر باشد. همچنین یافته‌های پژوهش نشانگر آنست که افراد نمونه، کیفیت معنایی ادراکی محیط را در مجموع و بر حسب هر سه مؤلفه هویت، حس‌تعلق خاطر و خوانایی در سطح بالاتر از متوسط بوده است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Forming Indicators of Semantic- conceptual Environmental Quality, Case Study: Sanandaj Qatarchian Neighborhood

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arsalan Tahmasebi 1
  • Hooshmand Alizadeh 2
  • Parviz Aslani 3
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Department of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Sanandaj, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Urban Design, Department of Art and Architecture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
3 M.A. of Architecture, Department of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Kurdistan Science and Research Branch, Sanandaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In the last decade the quality of the urban environment has become a specific significant issue and research shows that the urban environment include the environmental quality components. The efficiency of the urban environment will be reduced if these components are neglected. Thus, this study aims to identify semantic- perceptual factors that affects the quality of the urban environments. Also, this paper aims at studying the relationship between these components and their role in the quality of the environment in Sanandaj Qatarchyan neighborhood. This is an applied research in which descriptive -analytic method is used. Data collection tools of this research has been questionnaire which consists of the semantic- conceptual expression of the quality of the environment: identity, sense of belonging, legibility and security.
This paper aims to investigate the spatial- physical environment quality of Sanandaj Qatarchyan neighborhood from residents’ point of view based on demographic variables (Age, gender, residence history and education) and to look for more scientific explanation and more expertise view on factors influencing the environment quality. Accordingly, the theoretical literature on environment quality and related conceptual framework has shaped principles and theoretical model of study. Theoretical model has hierarchical structure and is based on empirical research perspective and according to questionnaires received from residents’ perception of study subject. In this model, conceptual- perceptual component of environmental quality includes four indicators of identity, sense of belonging, readability, safety and security; each of its sub- criteria was the base of study for the questionnaire.
This study is applicable in terms of objective and is descriptive- analytic in terms of research methodology. The sample size of questionnaire for district (Sanandaj Qtarchyan neighborhood) was 343 inhabitants using Cochran formula and considering the maximum heterogeneity hypothesis. Questionnaire validity was studied and confirmed according to experts and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (0.75). SPSS software and one- sample t-test were used in order to analyze the data and investigate the semantic- conceptual quality, ANOVA and LSD post hoc test were used in order to compare the views of people in terms of demographic variables and finally, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used in order to examine the relationship between demographic variables and twenty-three components of semantic- conceptual component of environment quality.
Residents consider functional- activity, perceptual- conceptual and aesthetic- appearance components significantly more than average among the second level criteria of experimental model. Quality of environmental factor is significantly lower than average level. This result can be due to a lack of green space, contradiction of work and environment, congestion of cars and dilapidated buildings atmosphere in study area. It was found that three criteria of identity, sense of belonging and readability are significantly higher than average and security is significantly lower than average. Visual and symbolic pollution, neglecting the needs and constraints of low income and lower-middle-class residents in designing space, narrow passageways and damaged buildings in city context are among the negative factors affecting the low security of mentioned area.
According to results, the age and authenticity, symbolic values, religious identity, maintaining professional identity, collective identity and strong mental memory, personal-social dependency, collective memory, meaning of space are related to body-sense understanding of the elements of the neighborhood, that are fit between the pause and movement. Finally, the presence of local residents of the indicators is a positive correlation.
Living history of authenticity, symbolic values, maintaining local identity, human identity, collective identity, strong mind and memory, personal-social dependency, meaning of space are in a positive correlation. Also the presence of space is negative and significant.
Findings focus on the fact that four perceptual- conceptual components have significant and positive correlation with environment quality. This indicates that a combination of semantic- conceptual indicators can predict environmental quality. The results show that environmental quality of Sanandaj Qtarchyan neighborhood is significantly higher than average (1 <3 <08 <5).
The inhabitants of the criteria in the second model, the functional components - activities, semantic-conceptual and aesthetic form- are significantly higher than the average. Quality as well as environmental factors are significantly lower than the average level. This result can be due to lack of green space, lack of fitness activities in the environment, congestion of cars and dilapidated buildings in the study area. Residents complained only from safety among four semantic- conceptual components of environment quality. Also, there is significant relationship among people perspectives on semantic- conceptual quality in terms of demographic variables.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental Quality
  • Semantic- perceptual Quality
  • Perception of Environmental
  • Structural Factor
  • Qtarchyan Sanandaj Neighborhood
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