عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban space is an objective, derived from the integration of social relations, in the physical context, in a semantic setting and in the direction of the collective human needs. In fact, the urban space is created not for being looked at, but for being there, which brings us to its depths and creates an experience in which all the people moving there can share. Cultural activities, due to the presence of informal spaces and programs, together with other functions, provide a good basis for establishing social interactions. As a result, paying attention to the social dimension of space in the design of cultural buildings and finding a link between spatial qualities and social concepts, including sociability, is very important in the success of these spaces. Sociability is one of the concepts used in the field of environmental psychology, which is referred to spaces that are multipurpose and provide many of the daily and user-friendly activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate the spatial arrangement and spatial relationships existing in contemporary cultural complexes of the country and its relationship with quality and social concepts such as sociability in these complexes. In this paper, the research method was combined in a case study analysis. Thus descriptive-analytic methods and logical reasoning and ultimately correlation were used. Also, on descriptions of these stages and processes of research, observing instruments, library and documentary studies and simulation in descriptive samples (Dezful and Niavaran Cultural Center) were used. In the process of simulation, the space syntax software is used to examine the indices such as communication, interconnection, and depth, in order to achieve a comprehensive and accurate analysis. Using the results of the spaces graphs and studying the parameters of interconnection, communication and depth, as well as recording the observations and analyzing the components of the community in the focal points of the case studies, the factors influencing the success of these spaces in the formation of social interactions were extracted. The results of research indicate that proper arrangement of space in cultural complexes can affect the sociability of these spaces. Studies have shown that the sociability of cultural spaces is related to the appropriate spatial arrangement and related activities. In fact, the quality and quantity of sociability increases with the coordination and compatibility between the space framework and the user’s behaviors. Analysis of the findings revealed that:
Integrations Indicator: Observations have shown that sociability in these spaces is cross-sectional and occurs at a specific time. In fact, if we want to divide the space into two active and semi-active regions, the courtyard is located in the active space and Theaters and galleries are located in semi-active spaces. Of the other spaces that are more interconnected than other spaces, is ground floor corridor of Dezful Cultural Center, which is considered as a sociable spaces due to its communicative role between the library, markets and restaurant. One of the physical factors of sociability enhancement in these courtyards is the presence of natural elements in the environment, the symbolically movement of water inside the building in Niavaran Cultural Center and using water pond and vegetation and fixed sculptures in Niavaran Cultural Center, improve the quality of physical space for the formation of social interactions.
Connectivity Indicator: Communication is defined as the number of points that a point is directly related to. According to this definition, the courtyards in these two complexes have a higher numerical indicator than the rest of the spaces due to the centrality and division role they have, which this centrality cause the interaction of users and the creation of social interactions and, consequently, sociability in these spaces. Most of the other spaces in these two complexes have a roughly equal association indicators. The lowest communication indicator is related to Art workshops in Dezful Cultural Center, which seems it is due to the creation of a more private space than other spaces for conducting educational classes.
Depth indicator: The yard as the main element of these complexes is placed after the entry at the next depth level and has the lowest depth. This leads to a greater involvement of this space with the surrounding urban environment and provides the basis for community-based connectivity between the urban space and the complexes. On the other hand, the serving and welfare areas and recreational and other functions are immediately followed up to the depth of space. These spaces, along with the main functions and activities of the space, are added to the variety of activities in the complex and increase the attendance of different people, and this affects the space sociability in the case of being properly controlled.